Figure 2: Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Piezo-generated charge mapping revealed through direct piezoelectric force microscopy

Fig. 2

Piezogenerated charge of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) a Piezo-generated current map of PPLN obtained when the tip scans from left to right-trace (DPFM-Si). b Piezo-generated current map of PPLN obtained when the tip scans from right to left-retrace (DPFM-So). Current is generated at domain walls, orange and blue vertical lines, where the tip strains and unstrains domains of opposite polarization. Inside the domains, a near zero current signal is observed, however a small contrast is present that can be due to surface screening recharging process. c PFM phase image and d PFM amplitude image of the same sample, obtained simultaneously with DPFM signals, scale bar 7.5 μm. In order to obtain DPFM signals an AC bias was connected to the back electrode of the specimen