Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Real-time tracking of metal nucleation via local perturbation of hydration layers

Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical feedback detection of the hydrodynamic signatures of nucleation. a Vertically oriented probe (VOP) scanned above the nascent Cu nuclei on the ITO electrode (grey). The blue gradient represents the strength of shear-force interaction around the nuclei caused by hydration layers. The red dashed line shows the scatter intensity used as the set-point to keep the probe tip at a constant separation from the ITO slide surface. b The exponential decay of the evanescent field with the distance (z-axis) from the surface of the ITO and how this relates to the intensity set-point in panel a. c Schematic representation of the contrast (probe frequency shift) induced by the shear-force interaction experienced by the tip while scanned above evolving nuclei at a given set-point. d VOP oscillation amplitude as a function of distance from a clean mica surface in ultra-pure water. This curve illustrates the hydration layer interaction in HS-LMFM imaging

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