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Global prevalence of erectile dysfunction and its associated risk factors among men with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Various observational studies have examined the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with type 1 diabetes across different geographical areas. Nevertheless, a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to consolidate the worldwide prevalence and risk factors remains lacking. Hence, the primary study objective was to perform an extensive systematic review and meta-analysis that specifically examined ED prevalence and determinants in men with type 1 diabetes. A thorough exploration was conducted by examining electronic databases, such as PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The general ED prevalence and a 95% confidence interval (CI) in men with type 1 diabetes were summarized. The relevant risk factors were analyzed by deriving a comprehensive odds ratio (OR) from merging the ORs using fixed- or random-effects models. The sources of heterogeneity were investigated using subgroup analyses and meta-regression. This systematic review and meta-analysis included 19 articles involving 3788 men with type 1 diabetes. The meta-analysis revealed that men with type 1 diabetes had a combined ED prevalence of 42.5% (95% CI: 34.3%–50.8%). This prevalence showed significant heterogeneity (I2 = 96.2%, P < 0.01). Meta-regression revealed that age (P = 0.016) and type 1 diabetes duration (P = 0.004) were significant causes of heterogeneity. Furthermore, the ED risk in men with type 1 diabetes was significantly influenced by age, type 1 diabetes duration, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), retinopathy, and smoking habits (all P < 0.05). In summary, this systematic review and meta-analysis revealed a significant prevalence of ED in men with type 1 diabetes, highlighting the importance of clinicians addressing concerns regarding ED in this specific group of individuals.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2: Forest plot of ED prevalence among men with type 1 diabetes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5: Forest plot of the OR of ED among men with type 1 diabetes compared to controls.
Fig. 6: Forest plot of the ED risk factors among men with type 1 diabetes.

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The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article. Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

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Funding

The research was funded by the Shaoxing Health Science and Technology Project (Grant Number 2022KY012).

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XLZ provided the presented idea. XLZ, ZRZ, and GLT performed the data analysis. XLZ wrote the manuscript. GLT did critical reading and editing the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Guiliang Tang.

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Zhang, X., Zhu, Z. & Tang, G. Global prevalence of erectile dysfunction and its associated risk factors among men with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Impot Res 36, 365–374 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-024-00855-0

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