Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Gendered Genital Modifications (GGMo): a universalistic anthropological approach. Response to Catalan and Emilova

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. Shell-Duncan B, Hernlund Y, Wander K, Moreau A. Legislating Change? Responses to criminalizing female genital cutting in Senegal. Law Soc Rev. 2013;47:803–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Gruenbaum E, Earp BD, Shweder RA. Reconsidering the role of patriarchy in upholding female genital modifications: analysis of contemporary and pre-industrial societies. Int J Impot Res. 2022.

  3. Rubin G. The traffic in women: notes on the ‘political economy’ of sex. In: Reiter RR, editor. Toward an anthropology of women. New York and London: Monthly Review Press; 1975. p. 157–210.

  4. Clark BA, Virani A. This wasn’t a split-second decision: an empirical ethical analysis of transgender youth capacity, rights, and authority to consent to hormone therapy. J Bioeth Inq. 2021;18:151–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Levine SB, Abbruzzese E, Mason JW. Reconsidering informed consent for trans-identified children, adolescents, and young adults. J Sex Marital Ther. 2022;48:706–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Hellsten SK. Rationalising circumcision: from tradition to fashion, from public health to individual freedom-critical notes on cultural persistence of the practice of genital mutilation. J Med Ethics. 2004;30:248–53.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Ching AH, Hirschman A, Lu X, Maniskas S, Forte AJ, Alperovich M, et al. Perception of femininity and attractiveness in Facial Feminization Surgery. Ann Transl Med. 2021;9:602

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Scheper-Hughes N, Lock MM. The mindful body: a prolegomenon to future work in medical anthropology. Med Anthropol Q. 1987;1:18.

  9. Sapir E. Culture, genuine and spurious. Am Journ Sociol. 1924;29:4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Nassiri N, Maas M, Basin M, Cacciamani GE, Doumanian LR. Urethral complications after gender reassignment surgery: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res. 2021;33:793–800.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hassan O, Sun D, Jha P. Imaging in gender affirmation surgery. Curr Urol Rep. 2021;22:14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Becerra-Culqui TA, Liu Y, Nash R, Cromwell L, Flanders WD, Getahun D, et al. Mental health of transgender and gender nonconforming youth compared with their peers. Pediatrics. 2018;141:e20173845.

  13. Bromberger C, Todorov T. Germaine Tillion: une ethnologue dans le siècle. Actes sud; 2002.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



MF conceived and designed this response/article.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michela Fusaschi.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fusaschi, M. Gendered Genital Modifications (GGMo): a universalistic anthropological approach. Response to Catalan and Emilova. Int J Impot Res (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


Quick links