This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 8 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $32.38 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Get just this article for as long as you need it
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
American Psychological Association. Resolution on supporting sexual/gender diverse children and adolescents in schools. 2020. https://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/policy/gender-diverse-children.
Brussels Collaboration on Bodily Integrity. Medically unnecessary genital cutting and the rights of the child: moving toward consensus. Am J Bioeth. 2019;19:17–28.
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. The fundamental rights situation of intersex people. 2015. https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2015/fundamental-rights-situation-intersex-people.
Kehrer I. Cuts into children’s future: a comparative analysis between FGM, male circumcision and intersex genital surgeries. Peace Hum Rights Gov. 2019;3:333–63.
Svoboda JS. Promoting genital autonomy by exploring commonalities between male, female, intersex, and cosmetic female genital cutting. Glob Discourse. 2013;3:237–55.
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Promoting the human rights of and eliminating discrimination against intersex people. Assembly debate on 12 October 2017. 35th Sitting. Text adopted by the Assembly on 12 October 2017. https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=24232.
United Nations Human Rights. Office of the high commissioner. Intersex awareness day. End violence and harmful medical practices on intersex children and adults. 2016. https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?LangID=E&NewsID=20739.
Chodzen G, Hidalgo MA, Chen D, Garofalo R. Minority stress factors associated with depression and anxiety among transgender and gender-nonconforming youth. J Adolesc Health. 2019;64:467–71.
Heylens G, Verroken C, De Cock S, T’Sjoen G, De Cuypere G. Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: a prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder. J Sex Med. 2014;11:119–26.
Kraemer B, Delsignore A, Schnyder U, Hepp U. Body image and transsexualism. Psychopathology. 2008;41:96–100.
Weyers S, Elaut E, De Sutter P, Gerris J, T’Sjoen G, Heylens G, et al. Long-term assessment of the physical, mental, and sexual health among transsexual women. J Sex Med. 2009;6:752–60.
Wierckx K, Van Caenegem E, Elaut E, Dedecker D, Van de Peer F, Toye K, et al. Quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual men. J Sex Med. 2011;8:3379–88.
Cornell University. Center for the study of inequality. What does the scholarly research say about the effect of gender transition on transgender well-being? Center for the study of inequality. 2017. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-the-scholarly-research-say-about-the-well-being-of-transgender-people/.
Bustos VP, Bustos SS, Mascaro A, Del Corral G, Forte AJ, Ciudad P, et al. Regret after Gender-affirmation Surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2021;9:e3477.
Hess J, Neto RR, Panic L, Rübben H, Senf W. Satisfaction with male-to-female gender reassignment surgery: results of a retrospective analysis. Dtsch Ärzteblatt Int. 2014;111:795–801.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Catalan, M., Emilova, M. Drawing and critiquing ethical distinctions among diverse forms of genital modification: Commentary on Fusaschi (2022). Int J Impot Res 35, 16–17 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-022-00637-6