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History and future perspectives of male aesthetic genital surgery

Abstract

Since ancient times, men have tried to change the size and shape of their genitals. Bites from insects or poisonous snakes and weights were among the first methods used for this purpose. In the first half of the 1900s, the scientific push regarding male genital aesthetic surgery began. Scrotoplasty, penile suspensory ligament release, injection of hyaluronic acid as filler, use of several types of grafts, lipofilling, and liposuction are techniques currently used. The Penuma® implant has recently been described with promising results. We are living in the era of tailored surgery and regenerative medicine. Shortly the surgeons will have to know several surgical techniques and adapt them to the patient. New fillers with ideal characteristics, innovative prosthetic devices, and stem cells will probably be the protagonists of future aesthetic surgery. The main effort of the scientific community should be directed towards the design of new randomized controlled trials to increase the evidence on the efficacy and safety of the topic, with the ultimate aim of allowing clear recommendations from scientific societies.

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This is a review; therefore, the availability of the reported data does not depend on the authors.

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CZ drafting the manuscript; DS, ILD, and JPAV organization of topics and supervision; CM scientific and grammatical correction; IMI critical review and final approval of the paper.

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Correspondence to Celeste Manfredi.

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Zaccaro, C., Subirà, D., López-Diez, I. et al. History and future perspectives of male aesthetic genital surgery. Int J Impot Res 34, 327–331 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-022-00580-6

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