Microbiota is defined as the group of commensal microorganisms that inhabit a specific human body site. The composition of each individual’s gastrointestinal microbiota is influenced by several factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, and drug intake, but an increasing number of studies have shown that the differences between a healthy microbiota and a dysbiotic one can be related to different diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this review is to give an overview of the role of the gut microbiota on BPH and ED. Gut microbiota modifications can influence prostate health indirectly by the activation of the immune system and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IL-23, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma, which are able to promote an inflammatory state. Gut dysbiosis may lead to the onset of ED by the alteration of hormone levels and metabolic profiles, the modulation of stress/anxiety-mediated sexual dysfunction, the development of altered metabolic conditions such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, and the development of hypertension. In conclusion, much evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota has an influence on various pathologies including BPH and ED.
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Russo, G.I., Bongiorno, D., Bonomo, C. et al. The relationship between the gut microbiota, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 35, 350–355 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-022-00569-1