The present study aimed to describe and critically discuss the current evidence regarding the penile girth enhancement procedures for aesthetic purposes. We designed a narrative review of the literature. A comprehensive search in the MEDLINE database was performed. Original articles in English-language, published until March 2021, were selected. A total of 29 studies were included (3 reporting non-invasive approaches, 11 injection therapies, and 15 surgical procedures). The vast majority of articles (26, 89.7%) were not randomized controlled trials, with overall low quality and limited level of evidence. Only 1 (33.3%) paper regarding non-invasive approaches reported a minimal (+0.03 cm) but a significant increase of penile girth (p = 0.034). A low rate (11.2–14.4%) of mild, temporary adverse events and poor-to-moderate patient satisfaction were found. Eight (72.7%) articles concerning injection therapies showed a significant increase in penile girth (p < 0.05). A low rate of mild complications, generally at the injection site, and a high patient satisfaction rate (75–100%) were highlighted. Nine (60%) papers on surgical treatments found a significant increase in penile girth (p < 0.05), while the other 6 (40%) studies reported a generic improvement in penile circumference. Skin necrosis or ulcers, wound infections, or need for reoperation were reported in 8 (53.3%) studies. A high patient satisfaction rate (60–100%) was reported. Our review highlighted the overall positive results of injection procedures, the poor outcomes associated with non-invasive techniques, and the good efficacy and satisfaction with a non-negligible risk of complications in patients undergoing surgical treatments. However, the adverse events are probably largely under-reported and these procedures should still be considered under investigation due to the limited evidence available and the lack of guidelines.
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Manfredi, C., Romero Otero, J. & Djinovic, R. Penile girth enhancement procedures for aesthetic purposes. Int J Impot Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00459-y