Depression and sleep problems are highly prevalent disorders that are often comorbid with other medical disorders. We evaluated the prevalence and associations of these conditions in patients presenting to a Men’s Health clinic. In this retrospective study, 124 patients presenting to a Men’s Health clinic completed three urological questionnaires (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-5], International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS], and Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males [ADAM]); and four non-urological questionnaires (Patient Health Questionnaire for depression [PHQ-9], STOP-BANG Sleep Apnea [OSA STOP-BANG], Insomnia Severity Index [ISI], and Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]). Questionnaire results were evaluated in conjunction with patient clinical history and associated laboratory values via univariate and multivariate analysis. The mean age of the study participants was 54.1 years (SD 16). Comorbidities included hypertension (22.5%), vascular disease (15%), and diabetes mellitus (13.3%). Body Mass Index (BMI) was >25 in 77.3%. IIEF-5 scores were moderate-severe in 47.9%, ADAM questionnaire was positive in 79%, and IPSS scores were moderate-severe in 42.9% of patients. PHQ-9 demonstrated mild-severe depression in 38.6%, STOP-BANG showed intermediate-high risk for sleep apnea in 55.2%, ISI indicated moderate-severe insomnia in 18.1%, and ESS revealed mild-severe sleepiness in 16.6% of participants. On univariate analysis, BMI was associated with scores on the PHQ-9 (p = 0.035), STOP-BANG (p < 0.001), and ESS (p < 0.006). On multivariate analysis, positive ADAM questionnaire was associated with STOP-BANG (OR 3.29, 95% CI: 1.012–10.69), and IPSS with PHQ-9 (OR 4.64, 95% CI: 1.40–15.43) and ISI (OR 3.27, 95% CI: 1.06–10.1). Overall, patients presenting to a Men’s Health Clinic were found to have high prevalence rates for risk of depression, insomnia and sleep apnea. Risks were elevated in older subjects, and those with increased BMI, hypogonadism, and lower urinary tract symptoms. Appropriate screening and referral to appropriate specialists are encouraged.
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We would like to thank Anna-Marie Hosking for this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Walia, A.S., Lomeli, L.d.J.M., Jiang, P. et al. Patients presenting to a Men’s Health clinic are at higher risk for depression, insomnia, and sleep apnea. Int J Impot Res 31, 39–45 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-018-0057-z