To determine if the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is involved in the improvement in erectile function recovery in rats after nerve crush injury treated with pioglitazone (Pio). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group received sham operation (n = 5). The second group underwent bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI, n = 7). The third group received BCNI and Pio treatment (BCNI + Pio, n = 7), whereas the fourth group underwent BCNI with Pio treatment and IGF-1 inhibition (BCNI + Pio + JB-1, n = 7). The IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was inhibited by JB-1, a small molecular antagonist of the receptor. After 14 days of treatment, erectile function was measured via intracorporal pressure normalized to mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) and the major pelvic ganglion and cavernous nerve harvested for western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of phosphorylated-IGF-1Rβ (p-IGF-1Rβ), phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). BCNI + Pio animals exhibited improvements in ICP/MAP, similar to Sham animals, and BCNI + Pio + JB-1 rats demonstrated a reduced ICP/MAP similar to BCNI-only rats at all measured voltages. Western blot results showed upregulation of p-IGF-1Rβ was observed in the BCNI + Pio group. Low levels of p-ERK1/2 were seen in the JB-1-treated animals. The immunoblot results were supported by IHC findings. Intense IHC staining of nNOS was detected in the BCNI + Pio group. The group treated with JB-1 showed minimal protein expression of p-ERK1/2, nNOS, and p-IGF-1Rβ. Pio improves erectile function in rats undergoing BCNI via an IGF-1-mediated pathway.
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Funding for this project was provided by the Sexual Medicine Society of North America.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Heidenberg, D., Haney, N., Rezk, B.M. et al. Pioglitazone’s beneficial effects on erectile function preservation after cavernosal nerve injury in the rat are negated by inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor: a preclinical study. Int J Impot Res 31, 1–8 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-018-0054-2
International Journal of Impotence Research (2019)