Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Hypertension and obesity comorbidities increases coronary risk, affects domains of sexual function and sexual quality of life


About 25% of the world’s adult population suffers from arterial hypertension with about 1.5 billion estimated to develop hypertension by 2025. Hypertensive patients have been reported to have a higher risk of developing diabetes and sexual dysfunction. Hypertension have been linked with lubricative and orgasmic difficulties in females, as wel as ED and vascular disease in men. Obesity has also been linked to ED in diabetic males as well as several aspects of female sexuality. Hypertension and obesity are closely related, each occurring in greater frequency with the other, it is only logical to think that comorbidities of obesity and hypertension could increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and SD. This research looks at the relationship between hypertension and obesity comorbidities and its association with sexual function in type II diabetics. Diabetic patients who were at least 18 years old and were engaged in a stable heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year were recruited for this study. Participants were categorized into the −HYP/−OB, +HYP/−OB and the +HYP/+OB groups. Sexual function was assessed using the GRISS-M and GRIS-F for the diabetic males and females respectively. Early morning fasting blood samples was used in lipid profile as well as FBG assay. The Coronary risk was estimated as Total/HDL Cholesterol. Triglyceride levels and coronary risk were highest in the +HYP/+OBES group, followed by the +HYP/−OBES group, with the −HYP/−OBES group recording the lowest levels. PE and infrequency recorded the highest score among the +HYP/+OBES group with the +HYP/−OBES group recording the lowest scores. SQoL was highest amongst the −HYP/−OBES group, with the +HYP/+OBES group recording the lowest scores. Anorgasmia and avoidance increased along the shades of HYP/OBES groups. Comorbidities of hypertension and obesity increases the risk of coronary disease, affects some domains of sexual function and decreases the SQoL of diabetics.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. The lancet. 2005;365:217–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Amoah A. Hypertension in Ghana: a cross-sectional community prevalence study in greater Accra. Ethn Dis 2002;13:310–5.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bosu WK. Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2010;10:418.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Roccella E. National high blood pressure education program working group report on hypertension in diabetes. Hypertension 1994;23:145–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Petrovski G, Dimitrovski C, Sadikario S, Bogoev M, Milenković T. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Prilozi 2003;25:17–26.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Aneja A, El-Atat F, McFarlane SI, Sowers JR. Hypertension and obesity. Recent Prog Horm Res 2004;59:169–205.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Ker JA. Hypertension and sexual dysfunction. South African. Fam Pract 2011;54:117–8.

    Google Scholar 

  8. James A. Hypertension and sexual dysfunction. 2012.

  9. Viigimaa M, Doumas M, Vlachopoulos C, Anyfanti P, Wolf J, Narkiewicz K, et al. Hypertension and sexual dysfunction: time to act. J Hypertens 2011;29:403–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Bansal S. Sexual dysfunction in hypertensive men. A critical review of the literature. Hypertension 1988;12:1–10.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Doumas M, Tsiodras S, Tsakiris A, Douma S, Chounta A, Papadopoulos A, et al. Female sexual dysfunction in essential hypertension: a common problem being uncovered. J Hypertens 2006;24:2387–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Duncan L, Lewis C, Smith C, Jenkins P, Nichols M, Pearson T. Sex, drugs, and hypertension: a methodological approach for studying a sensitive subject. Int J Impot Res 2001;13:31.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Jensen J, Lendorf A, Stimpel H, Frost J, Ibsen H, Rosenkilde P. The prevalence and etiology of impotence in 101 male hypertensive outpatients. Am J hypertens 1999;12:271–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, Krane RJ, McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol 1994;151:54–61.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Barrett‐Connor E. Cardiovascular risk stratification and cardiovascular risk factors associated with erectile dysfunction: assessing cardiovascular risk in men with erectile dysfunction. Clin Cardiol 2004;27:8–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Redon J. Hypertension in obesity. Nutr, Metab, Cardiovasc Dis 2001;11:344–53.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Pinnock CB, Stapleton AM, Marshall VR. Erectile dysfunction in the community: a prevalence study. Med J Aust 1999;171:353–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Larsen S, Wagner G, Heitmann BL. Sexual function and obesity. Int J Obes 2007;31:1189–98.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Riedner CE, Rhoden EL, Ribeiro EP, Fuchs SC. Central obesity is an independent predictor of erectile dysfunction in older men. J Urol 2006;176:1519–23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Chung WS, Sohn JH, Park YY. Is obesity an underlying factor in erectile dysfunction? Eur Urol 1999;36:68–70.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Krychman ML. Obesity and sexual function. Menopause 2015;22:1151–2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, Bisogni C, Schisano B, Autorino R, et al. Association of body weight with sexual function in women. Int J Impot Res 2007;19:353–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Frohlich ED, Messerli FH, Reisin E, Dunn FG. The problem of obesity and hypertension. Hypertension 1983;5:III71.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Authors' contributions

H.A., W.K.B.A.O., N.A., C.O., and C.K.G.S. developed the concept and designed the study. H.A., N.A., W.K.B.A.O., P.P.M.D., C.O., A.T.L., and A.T.B. administered the questionnaire, analyzed and interpreted the data. H.A., N.A., W.K.B.A.O., P.P.M.D., C.O., and A.T.B. performed all the assay procedures. H.A., W.K.B.A.O., N.A., C.O., P.P.M.D., A.T.L., and A.T.B. drafted the manuscript. H.A., W.K.B.A.O., N.A., P.P.M.D., C.O., C.K.G.S., and A.T.B. revised the manuscript for intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The study was privately funded by the authors.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to H. Alidu.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics approval

Ethical approval was obtained from the Committee on Human Research Publication and Ethics (CHRPE) of the School of Medical Science and the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi.

Informed consent

All participants gave informed and signed consent to partake in this study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alidu, H., Owiredu, W.K.B.A., Amidu, N. et al. Hypertension and obesity comorbidities increases coronary risk, affects domains of sexual function and sexual quality of life. Int J Impot Res 30, 8–13 (2018).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links