About 25% of the world’s adult population suffers from arterial hypertension with about 1.5 billion estimated to develop hypertension by 2025. Hypertensive patients have been reported to have a higher risk of developing diabetes and sexual dysfunction. Hypertension have been linked with lubricative and orgasmic difficulties in females, as wel as ED and vascular disease in men. Obesity has also been linked to ED in diabetic males as well as several aspects of female sexuality. Hypertension and obesity are closely related, each occurring in greater frequency with the other, it is only logical to think that comorbidities of obesity and hypertension could increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and SD. This research looks at the relationship between hypertension and obesity comorbidities and its association with sexual function in type II diabetics. Diabetic patients who were at least 18 years old and were engaged in a stable heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year were recruited for this study. Participants were categorized into the −HYP/−OB, +HYP/−OB and the +HYP/+OB groups. Sexual function was assessed using the GRISS-M and GRIS-F for the diabetic males and females respectively. Early morning fasting blood samples was used in lipid profile as well as FBG assay. The Coronary risk was estimated as Total/HDL Cholesterol. Triglyceride levels and coronary risk were highest in the +HYP/+OBES group, followed by the +HYP/−OBES group, with the −HYP/−OBES group recording the lowest levels. PE and infrequency recorded the highest score among the +HYP/+OBES group with the +HYP/−OBES group recording the lowest scores. SQoL was highest amongst the −HYP/−OBES group, with the +HYP/+OBES group recording the lowest scores. Anorgasmia and avoidance increased along the shades of HYP/OBES groups. Comorbidities of hypertension and obesity increases the risk of coronary disease, affects some domains of sexual function and decreases the SQoL of diabetics.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $14.88 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. The lancet. 2005;365:217–23.
Amoah A. Hypertension in Ghana: a cross-sectional community prevalence study in greater Accra. Ethn Dis 2002;13:310–5.
Bosu WK. Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2010;10:418.
Roccella E. National high blood pressure education program working group report on hypertension in diabetes. Hypertension 1994;23:145–60.
Petrovski G, Dimitrovski C, Sadikario S, Bogoev M, Milenković T. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Prilozi 2003;25:17–26.
Aneja A, El-Atat F, McFarlane SI, Sowers JR. Hypertension and obesity. Recent Prog Horm Res 2004;59:169–205.
Ker JA. Hypertension and sexual dysfunction. South African. Fam Pract 2011;54:117–8.
James A. Hypertension and sexual dysfunction. 2012.
Viigimaa M, Doumas M, Vlachopoulos C, Anyfanti P, Wolf J, Narkiewicz K, et al. Hypertension and sexual dysfunction: time to act. J Hypertens 2011;29:403–7.
Bansal S. Sexual dysfunction in hypertensive men. A critical review of the literature. Hypertension 1988;12:1–10.
Doumas M, Tsiodras S, Tsakiris A, Douma S, Chounta A, Papadopoulos A, et al. Female sexual dysfunction in essential hypertension: a common problem being uncovered. J Hypertens 2006;24:2387–92.
Duncan L, Lewis C, Smith C, Jenkins P, Nichols M, Pearson T. Sex, drugs, and hypertension: a methodological approach for studying a sensitive subject. Int J Impot Res 2001;13:31.
Jensen J, Lendorf A, Stimpel H, Frost J, Ibsen H, Rosenkilde P. The prevalence and etiology of impotence in 101 male hypertensive outpatients. Am J hypertens 1999;12:271–5.
Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, Krane RJ, McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol 1994;151:54–61.
Barrett‐Connor E. Cardiovascular risk stratification and cardiovascular risk factors associated with erectile dysfunction: assessing cardiovascular risk in men with erectile dysfunction. Clin Cardiol 2004;27:8–13.
Redon J. Hypertension in obesity. Nutr, Metab, Cardiovasc Dis 2001;11:344–53.
Pinnock CB, Stapleton AM, Marshall VR. Erectile dysfunction in the community: a prevalence study. Med J Aust 1999;171:353–7.
Larsen S, Wagner G, Heitmann BL. Sexual function and obesity. Int J Obes 2007;31:1189–98.
Riedner CE, Rhoden EL, Ribeiro EP, Fuchs SC. Central obesity is an independent predictor of erectile dysfunction in older men. J Urol 2006;176:1519–23.
Chung WS, Sohn JH, Park YY. Is obesity an underlying factor in erectile dysfunction? Eur Urol 1999;36:68–70.
Krychman ML. Obesity and sexual function. Menopause 2015;22:1151–2.
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, Bisogni C, Schisano B, Autorino R, et al. Association of body weight with sexual function in women. Int J Impot Res 2007;19:353–7.
Frohlich ED, Messerli FH, Reisin E, Dunn FG. The problem of obesity and hypertension. Hypertension 1983;5:III71.
H.A., W.K.B.A.O., N.A., C.O., and C.K.G.S. developed the concept and designed the study. H.A., N.A., W.K.B.A.O., P.P.M.D., C.O., A.T.L., and A.T.B. administered the questionnaire, analyzed and interpreted the data. H.A., N.A., W.K.B.A.O., P.P.M.D., C.O., and A.T.B. performed all the assay procedures. H.A., W.K.B.A.O., N.A., C.O., P.P.M.D., A.T.L., and A.T.B. drafted the manuscript. H.A., W.K.B.A.O., N.A., P.P.M.D., C.O., C.K.G.S., and A.T.B. revised the manuscript for intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The study was privately funded by the authors.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethical approval was obtained from the Committee on Human Research Publication and Ethics (CHRPE) of the School of Medical Science and the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi.
All participants gave informed and signed consent to partake in this study.
About this article
Cite this article
Alidu, H., Owiredu, W.K.B.A., Amidu, N. et al. Hypertension and obesity comorbidities increases coronary risk, affects domains of sexual function and sexual quality of life. Int J Impot Res 30, 8–13 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-017-0003-5
This article is cited by
Higher Edmonton Obesity Staging System scores are independently associated with postoperative complications and mortality following bariatric surgery: an analysis of the MBSAQIP
Surgical Endoscopy (2021)
Association between clitoral tissue perfusion and female sexual dysfunction in healthy women of reproductive age: a pilot study
International Journal of Impotence Research (2020)
MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin (2019)