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Eating before bed and new-onset hypertension in a Japanese population: the Iki city epidemiological study of atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease


The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between eating before bed and the development of hypertension in a general Japanese population. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using annual health check-up data collected from the residents of Iki City, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. In total, 2930 participants without hypertension at baseline (mean age 57.0 years, male 42.8%) were included in the present analysis. Eating before bed was defined as eating within 2 h of bedtime. The outcome of this study was incident hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering medications). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. During an average follow-up of 4.5 years, 909 participants developed hypertension. The incidence (per 1000 person-years) of hypertension in the group of individuals who ate before bed was 82.8, whereas that in the group of individuals who did not eat before bed was 65.8. The association was significant even after adjusting for other risk factors, including age, sex, current smoking status, current alcohol intake, regular exercise, obesity, elevated blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, with a hazard ratio of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.05–1.44) for the group of individuals who ate before bed compared with the group of individuals who did not eat before bed (P = 0.01 for trend). Eating before bed was correlated with a future risk of developing hypertension in the general Japanese population.

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We thank Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of this paper.

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Correspondence to Shunsuke Funakoshi.

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Funakoshi, S., Satoh, A., Maeda, T. et al. Eating before bed and new-onset hypertension in a Japanese population: the Iki city epidemiological study of atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Hypertens Res (2021).

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  • Blood pressure
  • Eating before bed
  • General population
  • Hypertension.


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