Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Contrasting levels of hybridization across the two contact zones between two hedgehog species revealed by genome-wide SNP data

Abstract

Hybridization and introgression have played important roles in the history of various species, including lineage diversification and the evolution of adaptive traits. Hybridization can accelerate the development of reproductive isolation between diverging species, and thus valuable insight into the evolution of reproductive barrier formation may be gained by studying secondary contact zones. Hedgehogs of the genus Erinaceus, which are insectivores sensitive to changes in climate, are a pioneer model in Pleistocene phylogeography. The present study provides the first genome-wide SNP data regarding the Erinaceus hedgehogs species complex, offering a unique comparison of two secondary contact zones between Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus. Results confirmed diversification of the genus during the Pleistocene period, and detected a new refugial lineage of E. roumanicus outside the Mediterranean basin, most likely in the Ponto-Caspian region. In the Central European zone, the level of hybridization was low, whereas in the Russian-Baltic zone, both species hybridise extensively. Asymmetrical gene flow from E. europaeus to E. roumanicus suggests that reproductive isolation varies according to the direction of the crosses in the hybrid zones. However, no loci with significantly different patterns of introgression were detected. Markedly different pre- and post-zygotic barriers, and thus diverse modes of species boundary maintenance in the two contact zones, likely exist. This pattern is probably a consequence of the different age and thus of the different stage of evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms in each hybrid zone.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Species ranges and localities of the 70 samples used in the present study.
Fig. 2: The estimated phylogeny of the genus Erinaceus, Atelerix and Hemiechinus inferred with MrBayes (Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003).
Fig. 3: Clustering analysis produced in Admixture (Alexander et al. 2009) for the highest supported number of clusters (six), represented by different colours, and ordered according to lineage/species membership.
Fig. 4: Principal component analysis (PCA) plot representing genetic variation of hedgehog populations.

Data availability

The data that supports findings of this study are publically available in Dryad under reference: 10.5061/dryad.2547d7wnt. Scripts used to process genomic data, produced plots and graphs are publicly available on GitHub: https://github.com/eliasok/hedgehog_RAD and https://github.com/IgnasiLucas/hedgehog.

References

  • Ai H, Fang X, Yang B, Huang Z, Chen H, Mao L et al. (2015) Adaptation and possible ancient interspecies introgression in pigs identified by whole-genome sequencing. Nat Genet 47:217–225

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander DH, Lange K (2011) Enhancements to the ADMIXTURE algorithm for individual ancestry estimation. BMC Bioinforma 12:246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander DH, Novembre J, Lange K (2009) Fast model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals. Genome Res 19:1655–1664

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Allen JRM, Hickler T, Singarayer JS, Sykes MT, Valdes PJ, Huntley B (2010) Last glacial vegetation of Northern Eurasia. Quat Sci Rev 29:2604–2618

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amori G (2016) Erinaceus europaeus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T29650A2791303

  • Amori G, Hutterer R, Kryštufek B, Yigit N, Mitsain G & Palomo LJ (2016a) Erinaceus concolor (errata version published in 2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T40605A115174497

  • Amori G, Hutterer R, Kryštufek B, Yigit, N, Mitsain G & Palomo LJ (2016b) Erinaceus roumanicus (errata version published in 2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T136344A115206348.

  • Anderson EC, Thompson EA (2002) A model-based method for identifying species hybrids using multilocus genetic data. Genetics 160:1217–1229

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Andrade P, Pinho C, i de Lanuza GP, Afonso S, Brejcha J, Rubin CJ et al. (2019) Regulatory changes in pterin and carotenoid genes underlie balanced color polymorphisms in the wall lizard. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116:5633–5642

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Babik W, Branicki W, Sandera M, Litvinchuk S, Borkin LJ, Irwin JT et al. (2004) Mitochondrial phylogeography of the moor frog, Rana arvalis. Mol Ecol 13:1469–1480

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baird NA, Etter PD, Atwood TS, Currey MC, Shiver AL, Lewis ZA et al. (2008) Rapid SNP discovery and genetic mapping using sequenced RAD markers. PLoS One 3:3376

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bannikova AA, Lebedev VS, Abramov AV, Rozhnov VV (2014) Contrasting evolutionary history of hedgehogs and gymnures (Mammalia: Erinaceomorpha) as inferred from a multigene study. Biol J Linn Soc 112:499–519

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bannikova AA, Fedorova LV, Fedorov AN, Troitskiĭ AV, Grechko VV, Dolgov VA et al. (1995) Comparison of repeat DNA sequences in the Erinaceidae mammal family by restriction analysis. Genetika 31:1498–1506

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barton NH, Hewitt GM (1985) Analysis of Hybrid Zones. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 16:113–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bierne N, Welch J, Loire E, Bonhomme F, David P (2011) The coupling hypothesis: why genome scans may fail to map local adaptation genes. Mol Ecol 20:2044–2072

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bogdanov AS, Bannikova AA, Pirusskii YM, Formozov NA(2009) The first genetic evidence of hybridization between West European and Northern white-breasted hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus) in Moscow region. Biol Bull 36:647–651

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bouckaert R, Heled J, Kühnert D, Vaughan T, Wu CH, Xie D et al. (2014) BEAST 2: A Software Platform for Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis. PLoS Comput Biol 10:e1003537

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Cassola F (2016) Erinaceus amurensis (errata version published in 2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T40604A115174360

  • Catchen J, Bassham S, Wilson T, Currey M, O’Brien C, Yeates Q et al. (2013) The population structure and recent colonization history of Oregon threespine stickleback determined using restriction-site associated DNA-sequencing. Mol Ecol 22:2864–2883

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Černá Bolfíková B, Eliášová K, Loudová M, Kryštufek B, Lymberakis P, Sándor AD et al. (2017) Glacial allopatry vs. postglacial parapatry and peripatry: The case of hedgehogs. PeerJ 5:e3163

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper SJB, Ibrahim KM, Hewitt GM (1995) Postglacial expansion and genome subdivision in the European grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. Mol Ecol 4:49–60

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Corbet GB (1988) The family Erinaceidae: a synthesis of its taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology and zoogeography. Mamm Rev 18:117–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cordova CE, Harrison SP, Mudie PJ, Riehl S, Leroy SAG, Ortiz N (2009) Pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal records for palaeovegetation reconstruction in the Mediterranean-Black Sea Corridor since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat Int 197:12–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coyne J, Orr H (2004) Speciation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland

    Google Scholar 

  • Curto M, Winter S, Seiter A, Schmid L, Scheicher K, Barthel LMF et al. (2019) Application of a SSR-GBS marker system on investigation of European hedgehog species and their hybrid zone dynamics. Ecol Evol 9:2814–2832

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Danecek P, Auton A, Abecasis G, Albers CA, Banks E, DePristo MA et al. (2011) The variant call format and VCFtools. Bioinformatics 27:2156–2158

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Dobzhansky T (1937) Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Durand EY, Patterson N, Reich D, Slatkin M (2011) Testing for ancient admixture between closely related populations. Mol Biol Evol 28:2239–2252

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Filippucci MG, Lapini L (1988) First data on the genetic differentiation between Erinaceus europaeus Linnaeus, 1758 and Erinaceus concolor Martin, 1838 in North-eastern Italy (Mammalia, Insectivora, Erinaceidae). Gortania 9:227–236

    Google Scholar 

  • Fitak RR (2019) optM: an R package to optimize the number of migration edges using threshold models. v0.1.3. J Hered. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/OptM/index.html

  • García-Vázquez A, Pinto Llona AC, Grandal-d’Anglade A (2019) Post-glacial colonization of Western Europe brown bears from a cryptic Atlantic refugium out of the Iberian Peninsula. Hist Biol 31:618–630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garrison E, Marth G (2012) Haplotype-based variant detection from short-read sequencing. arXiv:1207.3907. http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.3907

  • Gompert Z, Buerkle CA (2011) Bayesian estimation of genomic clines. Mol Ecol 20:2111–2127

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gompert Z, Buerkle CA (2012) Bgc: Software for Bayesian estimation of genomic clines. Mol Ecol Resour 12:1168–1176

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, Maricic T, Stenzel U, Kircher M et al. (2010) A draft sequence of the neandertal genome. Science 328:710–722

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Harrison RG, Larson EL (2014) Hybridization, introgression, and the nature of species boundaries. J Hered 105:795–809

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • He K, Chen J-H, Gould GC, Yamaguchi N, Ai H-S, Wang Y-X et al. (2012) An estimation of erinaceidae phylogeny: a combined analysis approach. PLoS One 7:e39304

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hewitt GM (1988) Hybrid zones-natural laboratories for evolutionary studies. Trends Ecol Evol 3:158–167

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hewitt GM (1999) Post-glacial re-colonization of European biota. Biol J Linn Soc 68:87–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson DB (2006) The breeding biology of introduced hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) on a Scottish Island: Lessons for population control and bird conservation. J Zool 268:303–314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johannesson K, Le Moan A, Perini S, André C (2020) A Darwinian Laboratory of Multiple Contact Zones. Trends Ecol Evol 35:1021–1036

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jombart T, Ahmed I (2011) Adegenet 1.3-1: New tools for the analysis of genome-wide SNP data. Bioinformatics 27:3070–3071

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Korneliussen TS, Albrechtsen A, Nielsen R (2014) ANGSD: analysis of next generation sequencing data. BMC Bioinforma 15:356. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-014-0356-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kotlík P, Deffontaine V, Mascheretti S, Zima J, Michaux JR, Searle JB (2006) A northern glacial refugium for bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:14860–14864

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kratochvil J (1966) Zur Frage der Verbreitung des Igels (Erinaceus) in der ČSSR. Zool List 15:291–304

    Google Scholar 

  • Kratochvíl J (1975) Zur Kenntnis der Igel der Gattung Erinaceus in der ČSSR (Insectivora, Mamm.). Zool List 24:297–312

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar V, Lammers F, Bidon T, Pfenninger M, Kolter L, Nilsson MA et al. (2017) The evolutionary history of bears is characterized by gene flow across species. Sci Rep. 7:46487

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Langmead B, Trapnell C, Pop M, Salzberg SL (2009) Ultrafast and memory-efficient alignment of short DNA sequences to the human genome. Genome Biol 10:R25

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Li G, Davis BW, Eizirik E, Murphy WJ (2016) Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae). Genome Res 26:1–11

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Li H, Handsaker B, Wysoker A, Fennell T, Ruan J, Homer N et al. (2009) The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics 25:2078–2079

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Linck E, Battey CJ (2019) Minor allele frequency thresholds strongly affect population structure inference with genomic data sets. Mol Ecol Resour 19:639–647

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lischer HEL, Excoffier L (2012) PGDSpider: an automated data conversion tool for connecting population genetics and genomics programs. Bioinformatics 28:298–299

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Lorenzen ED, Fumagalli M, Li B, Harris K, Xiong Z et al. (2014) Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears. Cell 157:785–794

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Malinsky M, Challis RJ, Tyers AM, Schiffels S, Terai Y, Ngatunga BP et al. (2015) Genomic islands of speciation separate cichlid ecomorphs in an East African crater lake. Science 350:1493–1498

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mallet J (2005) Hybridization as an invasion of the genome. Trends Ecol Evol 20:229–237

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Martin SH, Davey JW, Jiggins C (2015) Evaluating the Use of ABBA-BABA Statistics to Locate Introgressed Loci. Mol Biol Evol 32:244–257

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Martin SH, Dasmahapatra KK, Nadeau NJ, Salazar C, Walters JR, Simpson F et al. (2013) Genome-wide evidence for speciation with gene flow in Heliconius butterflies. Genome Res 23:1817–1828

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Nadeau NJ, Ruiz M, Salazar P, Counterman B, Medina JA, Ortiz-Zuazaga H et al. (2014) Population genomics of parallel hybrid zones in the mimetic butterflies, H. melpomene and H. erato. Genome Res 24:1316–1333

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Patterson N, Moorjani P, Luo Y, Mallick S, Rohland N, Zhan Y et al. (2012) Ancient admixture in human history. Genetics 192:1065–1093

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Payseur BA, Rieseberg LH (2016) A genomic perspective on hybridization and speciation. Mol Ecol 25:2337–2360

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Pickrell JK, Pritchard JK (2012) Inference of population splits and mixtures from genome-wide allele frequency data. PLoS Genet 8:e1002967

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Poduschka W, Poduschka C (1983) Kreuzungsversuche an mitteleuropäischen Igeln. Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 31:1–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Posada D (2008) jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Mol Biol Evol 25:1253–1256

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Purcell S, Neale B, Todd-Brown K, Thomas L, Ferreira MAR, Bender D et al. (2007) PLINK: A tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. Am J Hum Genet 81:559–575

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • R Core Team (2013) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/

  • Rambaut A (2018) FigTree v1.4.4. http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software-/figtree/

  • Rambaut A, Drummond A (2007) Tracer v1.4. http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/tracer/

  • Reeve NJ, Morris PA (1986) Mating strategy in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). J Zool 210:613–614

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reeve N (1994) Hedgehogs. T. & A.D. Poyser: London

  • Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N, Durand EY et al. (2010) Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova cave in Siberia. Nature 468:1053–1060

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Remington CL (1968) Suture-Zones of Hybrid Interaction Between Recently Joined Biotas. In: Dobzhansky T, Hecht MK, Steere CW (eds) Evolutionary Biology. Plenum Press, New York, p 321–428

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rockman MV (2012) The QTN program and the alleles that matter for evolution: All that’s gold does not glitter. Evolution (NY) 66:1–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • roumanicus in Central Europe. Heredity 108:248–255

  • Santucci F, Emerson BC, Hewitt GM (1998) Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of European hedgehogs. Mol Ecol 7:1163–1172

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schmitt T, Varga Z (2012) Extra-Mediterranean refugia: The rule and not the exception? Front Zool 9:22

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarz G (1978) Estimating the dimension of a model. Ann Stat 6:461–464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seddon JM, Santucci F, Reeve NJ, Hewitt GM (2001) DNA footprints of European hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus and E. concolor: Pleistocene refugia, postglacial expansion and colonization routes. Mol Ecol 10:2187–2198

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smadja CM, Butlin RK (2011) A framework for comparing processes of speciation in the presence of gene flow. Mol Ecol 20:5123–5140

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sommer RS (2007) When east met west: the sub-fossil footprints of the west European hedgehog and the northern white-breasted hedgehog during the Late Quaternary in Europe. J Zool 273:82–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stephens PA, Sutherland WJ (1999) Consequences of the Allee effect for behaviour, ecology and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 14:401–405

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sukumaran J, Holder MT (2010) DendroPy: A Python library for phylogenetic computing. Bioinformatics 26:1569–1571

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Szarmach SJ, Brelsford A, Witt CC, Toews DPL (2021) Comparing divergence landscapes from reduced-representation and whole genome resequencing in the yellow-rumped warbler (Setophaga coronata) species complex. Mol Ecol 30:5994–6005

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taberlet P, Bouvet J (1994) Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the brown bear Ursus arctos in Europe. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 255:195–200

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor SA, Larson EL (2019) Insights from genomes into the evolutionary importance and prevalence of hybridization in nature. Nat Ecol Evol 3:170–177

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Varga Z (2010) Extra-mediterranean refugia, post-glacial vegetation history and area dynamics in Eastern Central Europe. In: Habel J, Assmann T (eds) Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, p 57–87

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Vijay N, Bossu CM, Poelstra JW, Weissensteiner MH, Suh A, Kryukov AP et al. (2016) Evolution of heterogeneous genome differentiation across multiple contact zones in a crow species complex. Nat Commun 7:13195–13205

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Weir BS, Cockerham CC (1984) Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution (NY) 38:1358

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wu DD, Ding XD, Wang S, Wójcik JM, Zhang Y, Tokarska M et al. (2018) Pervasive introgression facilitated domestication and adaptation in the Bos species complex. Nat Ecol Evol 2:1139–1145

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zheng Y, Janke A (2018) Gene flow analysis method, the D-statistic, is robust in a wide parameter space. BMC Bioinforma 19:10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zieliński P, Dudek K, Arntzen JW, Palomar G, Niedzicka M, Fijarczyk A et al. (2019) Differential introgression across newt hybrid zones: evidence from replicated transects. Mol Ecol 28:4811–4824

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zolotareva KI, Belokon MM, Belokon YS, Rutovskaya MV, Hlyap LA, Starykov VP et al. (2021) Genetic diversity and structure of the hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and Erinaceus roumanicus: evidence for ongoing hybridization in Eastern Europe. Biol J Linn Soc 132:174–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Lukáš Choleva and Bianka Baying for assisting us with the preparation of the Illumina libraries, and Jindřich Brejcha for creating the sampling map. For language proofreading, we thank Science Unleashed. The project was funded by the Grant Agency of Charles University in Prague, project no. 538218 (KE, ML, BČB), Czech University of Life Sciences CIGA 20185006 (BČB) and IGA 20223108 (BČB), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity RYC-2012-11872 (JILL) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research N20-04-00081a (AB, KZ).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

BČB and PH conceived the study; BČB, PH, KE and JILL designed the study; ML, PH and KE performed the laboratory work; KE, JILL, JHG and BČB analysed the data; BČB, KE, PH, JILL, ML, VB, AB, KZ contributed to samples/reagents/materials; KE, BČB and PH drafted the manuscript, and all authors contributed to the final version.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kristýna Eliášová.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Associate editor: Rui Faria.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Eliášová, K., Lucas Lledó, J.I., Grau, J.H. et al. Contrasting levels of hybridization across the two contact zones between two hedgehog species revealed by genome-wide SNP data. Heredity 129, 305–315 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41437-022-00567-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41437-022-00567-5

Search

Quick links