Alternative transcripts in variant interpretation: the potential for missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses

Abstract

Purpose

Guidelines by professional organizations for assessing variant pathogenicity include the recommendation to utilize biologically relevant transcripts; however, there is variability in transcript selection by laboratories.

Methods

We describe three patients whose genomic results were incorrect, because alternative transcripts and tissue expression patterns were not considered by the commercial laboratories.

Results

In individual 1, a pathogenic coding variant in a brain-expressed isoform of CKDL5 was missed twice on sequencing, because the variant was intronic in the transcripts considered in analysis. In individual 2, a microdeletion affecting KMT2C was not reported on microarray, since deletions of proximal exons in this gene are seen in healthy individuals; however, this individual had a more distal deletion involving the brain-expressed KMT2C isoform, giving her a diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome. Individual 3 was reported to have a pathogenic variant in exon 10 of OFD1 on exome, but had no typical features of the OFD1-related disorders. Since exon 10 is spliced from the more biologically relevant transcripts of OFD1, it was determined that he did not have an OFD1 disorder.

Conclusion

These examples illustrate the importance of considering alternative transcripts as a potential confounder when genetic results are negative or discordant with the phenotype.

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Fig. 1: Alternate transcripts and regions of interest for each of the 3 cases.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the families who participated in this study. Research reported in this paper was supported by the NIH Common Fund, through the Office of Strategic Coordination/Office of the NIH Director under award number U01HG007672. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network members are Maria T. Acosta, Margaret Adam, David R. Adams, Pankaj B. Agrawal, Mercedes E. Alejandro, Justin Alvey, Laura Amendola, Ashley Andrews, Euan A. Ashley, Mahshid S. Azamian, Carlos A. Bacino, Guney Bademci, Eva Baker, Ashok Balasubramanyam, Dustin Baldridge, Jim Bale, Michael Bamshad, Deborah Barbouth, Gabriel F. Batzli, Pinar Bayrak-Toydemir, Anita Beck, Alan H. Beggs, Edward Behrens, Gill Bejerano, Jimmy Bennet, Beverly Berg-Rood, Raphael Bernier, Jonathan A. Bernstein, Gerard T. Berry, Anna Bican, Stephanie Bivona, Elizabeth Blue, John Bohnsack, Carsten Bonnenmann, Devon Bonner, Lorenzo Botto, Brenna Boyd, Lauren C. Briere, Elly Brokamp, Gabrielle Brown, Elizabeth A. Burke, Lindsay C. Burrage, Manish J. Butte, Peter Byers, William E. Byrd, John Carey, Olveen Carrasquillo, Ta Chen Peter Chang, Sirisak Chanprasert, Hsiao-Tuan Chao, Gary D. Clark, Terra R. Coakley, Laurel A. Cobban, Joy D. Cogan, F. Sessions Cole, Heather A. Colley, Cynthia M. Cooper, Heidi Cope, William J. Craigen, Andrew B. Crouse, Michael Cunningham, Precilla D'Souza, Hongzheng Dai, Surendra Dasari, Mariska Davids, Jyoti G. Dayal, Matthew Deardorff, Esteban C. Dell'Angelica, Shweta U. Dhar, Katrina Dipple, Daniel Doherty, Naghmeh Dorrani, Emilie D. Douine, David D. Draper, Laura Duncan, Dawn Earl, David J. Eckstein, Lisa T. Emrick, Christine M. Eng, Cecilia Esteves, Tyra Estwick, Marni Falk, Liliana Fernandez, Carlos Ferreira, Elizabeth L. Fieg, Paul G. Fisher, Brent L.Fogel, Irman Forghani, Laure Fresard, William A. Gahl, Ian Glass, Rena A. Godfrey, Katie Golden-Grant, Alica M. Goldman, David B. Goldstein, Alana Grajewski, Catherine A. Groden, Andrea L. Gropman, Irma Gutierrez, Sihoun Hahn, Rizwan Hamid, Neil A. Hanchard, Kelly Hassey, Nichole Hayes, Frances High, Anne Hing, Fuki M. Hisama, Ingrid A. Holm, Jason Hom, Martha Horike-Pyne, Alden Huang, Yong Huang, Rosario Isasi, Fariha Jamal, Gail P. Jarvik, Jeffrey Jarvik, Suman Jayadev, Jean M. Johnston, Lefkothea Karaviti, Emily G. Kelley, Jennifer Kennedy, Dana Kiley, Isaac S. Kohane, Jennefer N. Kohler, Deborah Krakow, Donna M. Krasnewich, Elijah Kravets, Susan Korrick, Mary Koziura, Joel B. Krier, Seema R. Lalani, Byron Lam, Christina Lam, Brendan C. Lanpher, Ian R. Lanza, C. Christopher Lau, Kimberly LeBlanc, Brendan H. Lee, Hane Lee, Roy Levitt, Richard A. Lewis, Sharyn A. Lincoln, Pengfei Liu, Xue Zhong Liu, Nicola Longo, Sandra K. Loo, Joseph Loscalzo, Richard L. 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Correspondence to Vandana Shashi MD.

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Schoch, K., Tan, Q.KG., Stong, N. et al. Alternative transcripts in variant interpretation: the potential for missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. Genet Med 22, 1269–1275 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0781-x

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Keywords

  • alternative splicing
  • exome/genome sequencing
  • chromosomal microarray
  • transcript expression
  • isoforms

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