Table 1 Demographics, comorbidities, disease complications, and outcomes of patients with Down syndrome and age, sex, race, and ethnicity-matched controls hospitalized for COVID-19.

From: Individuals with Down syndrome hospitalized with COVID-19 have more severe disease

  Total (n = 72) number (%) Control (n = 60) number (%) Down syndrome (n = 12) number (%) p value
Patient demographics
 Median age (IQR), years 54 (32–60) 54 (32–60) 54 (32–59) -
Sex
  Female 36 (50.0) 15 (50.0) 6 (50.0) -
  Male 36 (50.0) 15 (50.0) 6 (50.0) -
Race
  White 30 (41.7) 25 (41.7) 5 (41.7) -
  Unknown 42 (58.3) 35 (58.3) 7 (58.3) -
Ethnicitya
  Hispanic or Latino or Spanish origin 14/36 (38.9) 12/30 (40.0) 2/6 (33.3) -
  Unknown 22/36 (61.1) 18/30 (60.0) 4 (66.7) -
Comorbidities
  Hypertension 17 (23.6) 16 (26.7) 1 (8.3) 0.2
  Atherosclerotic heart disease 2 (2.8) 2 (3.3) 0 -
  Obesity 4 (5.6) 4 (6.7) 0 -
  Median BMI (IQR), kg/m2 29.0 (23.8–33.1) 29.0 (23.3–33.4) 28.7 (26.9–31.3) -
  Type 2 diabetes mellitus 15 (20.8) 10 (16.7) 5 (41.7) 0.11
 Cancer
  Current cancer 2 (2.8) 1 (1.7) 1 (8.3) 0.3
  History of cancer 2 (2.8) 2 (3.3) 0 -
 Liver disease
  Cirrhosis 1 (1.4) 1 (1.7) 0 -
  Hepatitis 0 0 0 -
 Lung disease
  Asthma 5 (6.9) 4 (6.7) 1 (8.3) 1
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 2 (2.8) 2 (3.3) 0 -
  Interstitial lung disease 1 (1.4) 1 (1.7) 0 -
  Chronic kidney disease 1 (1.4) 1 (1.7) 0 -
 Neurologic
  Dementia 4 (5.6) 1 (1.7) 3 (25.0)  
  Epilepsy/seizure disorder 7 (9.7) 4 (6.7) 3 (25.0) 0.01
  Stroke 1 (1.3) 1 (1.7) 0 0.09
  Transplant <1 year 1 (1.3) 1 (1.7) 0 -
  Rheumatic disease 1 (1.3) 1 (1.7) 0 -
  HIV/AIDS 0 0 0 -
  Hypothyroidism 7 (9.7) 1 (1.7) 6 (50.0) 0.0003
Complications
  Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 15 (20.8) 10 (16.7) 5 (41.7) 0.11
  Sepsis 38 (52.8) 28 (46.7) 10 (83.3) 0.03
  Invasive mechanical ventilation 13 (18.1) 8 (13.3) 5 (41.7) 0.03
  ICU care 19 (26.4) 13 (21.7) 6 (50.0) 0.07
Outcomes
 Median length of stay (95% CI), days 7.6 (6.6–11.9) 7.1 (5.5–9.1) 15.8 (11.9–infinity) 0.1b
Patient status at study end
  Deceased 7 (9.7) 4 (6.7) 3 (25.0) 0.056c
  Discharged 55 (76.4) 49 (81.7) 6 (50.0) 0.033c
  Still admitted (censored) 10 (13.9) 7 (11.7) 3 (25.0)  
  1. “-” Denotes p value = 1.
  2. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range.
  3. aEthnicity data only available for Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) patients.
  4. bp value calculated using Chi-squared test.
  5. cCompeting risk analysis; comparison of cumulative incidence curves. All other p values calculated with Fisher’s exact test.