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Trends over 42 years in the Adult Medical Genetics Clinic at the University of Washington




We analyzed the patients served by the University of Washington Adult Genetic Medicine Clinic (UWAGMC) over a 42-year period to determine how clinical services have changed and to evaluate the contributing factors.


We conducted a retrospective survey of patients seen by UWAGMC that included patients seen from 1975 to 2016. Variables considered included referral indication, disease status, and clinic visit date. Indications for referral were then binned into clinical categories for descriptive analysis.


Of 30,780 patient visits during the 39 years for which data were available, 57.3% occurred in the last decade. Referrals for breast/ovarian cancer or colon/endometrial cancer account for 74.8% of cancer referrals since 1998. Huntington disease patients made up 46% of neurological referral indications. Telephone screening implemented in 2013 has reduced the number of referrals for hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos syndrome.


Referral indications increased with clinical testing availability and because of the academic programs of UWAGMC providers. With increased public awareness of heritable conditions, prescreening self-referrals were used to allocate limited resources. These trends demonstrate the need for more geneticists in adult medicine to expand centers of excellence for rare diseases and to serve the increasing numbers of adult patients with genetic conditions.

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E.A.G. was supported by the ACMG Foundation Summer Scholars Program. We thank Elisabeth Rosenthal for assistance with Fig. 1. We thank Debbie Olson for assistance in obtaining the clinic schedules, and thank the many fellows, genetic counselors, nurses, and social workers, past and present, who contributed to the UWAGMC.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence to Elizabeth A. Gay BS.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2: Specific referral indications by category.