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Cell therapy for Parkinson′s disease is coming of age: current challenges and future prospects with a focus on immunomodulation

Gene Therapy (2019) | Download Citation

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects more than 1% of people over the age of 60. The principal feature of this disease is the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) within the nigrostriatal system, causing the motor symptoms observed in these patients. At present, there is no therapeutic approach with a cytoprotective effect that can prevent DAn cell death or disease progression. Cell replacement therapy began 30 years ago with the objective to compensate for the loss of DAn by transplantation of dopamine-producing cells. The results from these trials have provided proof of concept of safety and efficacy of cell replacement. However, a major limiting factor of this strategy has been the poor survival rate of grafted DAn. An important factor that could cause cell death of DA precursors is the host response to the graft. In this review, we discuss the factors that affect the outcome of cell therapy in PD, with focus on the cell types used and the functional effects of the host immune response on graft survival and differentiation. We also discuss the strategies that may increase the efficacy of cell replacement therapy which target the host immune response.

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Acknowledgements

SDW and FJP are members of the research career of CONICET.

Funding

National Agency for Scientific and Technologic Promotion (ANPCYT, Argentina), National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET, Argentina).

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Affiliations

  1. Leloir Institute Foundation- IIBBA CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1405, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    • Shirley D. Wenker
    •  & Fernando J. Pitossi

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Fernando J. Pitossi.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/s41434-019-0077-4