Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Brief Communication
  • Published:

At what distance should digital devices be viewed?

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Viewing distance of digital devices.
Fig. 2: Viewing distance and symptoms score.

Data availability

Data will be provided upon request.


  1. Sheppard AL, Wolffsohn JS. Digital eye strain: prevalence, measurement and amelioration. BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2018;3:e000146.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Borsting EJ, Rouse MW, Mitchell GL, Scheiman M, Cotter SA, Cooper J, et al. Validity and reliability of the revised convergence insufficiency symptom survey in children aged 9 to 18 years. Optom Vis Sci. 2003;80:832–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Jaschinski-Kruza W. Eyestrain in VDU users: Viewing distance and the resting position of ocular muscles. Hum Factors. 1991;33:69–83.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Jaschinski W, Heuer H, Kylian H. Preferred position of visual displays relative to the eyes: a field study of visual strain and individual differences. Ergonomics. 1998;41:1034–49.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Long J, Cheung R, Duong S, Paynter R, Asper L. Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones. Clin Exp Optom. 2017;100:133–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Ms. Anshita Sodhi for her help with data collection. Ms. Shakthi Pradheepa for formatting help.


Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation for support to author PNS.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



PNS conceived the study question, design, data analysis and writing. SR contributed to study design, data collection, analysis and reviewing the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to PremNandhini Satgunam.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ramteke, S., Satgunam, P. At what distance should digital devices be viewed?. Eye 38, 815–816 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links