The perivascular space of the central retinal artery as a potential major cerebrospinal fluid inflow route: implications for optic disc edema in astronauts

Article metrics

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Wostyn P, Mader TH, Gibson CR, Killer HE. The escape of retrobulbar cerebrospinal fluid in the astronaut’s eye: mission impossible? Eye. 2019.

  2. 2.

    Hayreh SS. The sheath of the optic nerve. Ophthalmologica. 1984;189:54–63.

  3. 3.

    Wostyn P, Killer HE, De Deyn PP. Glymphatic stasis at the site of the lamina cribrosa as a potential mechanism underlying open-angle glaucoma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017;45:539–47.

  4. 4.

    Jacobsen HH, Ringstad G, Jørstad ØK, Moe MC, Sandell T, Eide PK. The human visual pathway communicates directly with the subarachnoid space. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019;60:2773–80.

  5. 5.

    Mathieu E, Gupta N, Ahari A, Zhou X, Hanna J, Yücel YH. Evidence for cerebrospinal fluid entry into the optic nerve via a glymphatic pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4784–91.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Peter Wostyn.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark