Table 1 Patients’ data, measurement results and statistical comparisons

From: Influence of fatty deposits in the levator aponeurosis/levator palpebrae superioris muscle on outcomes of aponeurotic repair in a Japanese population

  Total Group A
(success)
Group B (undercorrected) p Value: intergroup difference p p p
   A1 (fat deposit+) A2 (fat deposit−) Fat deposit+ One-way ANOVA A1 vs. A2 A1 vs. B A2 vs. B
Eyelids (numbers) 94 70 6 18     
Right/left (numbers) 48/46 37/33 4/2 6/12   0.416a 0.139a 0.170a
Contact lens wearer (numbers) 23 20 2 1   0.563a 0.033b 0.143a
Double eyelid crease (numbers) (%) 79 (84.0) 56 (80.0) 6 (100.0) 16 (88.9)   0.281a 0.311a 0.544a
High eyelid crease (numbers) (%) 30 (31.9) 24 (34.3) 2 (33.3) 4 (22.2)   0.667a 0.247a 0.861a
Dehiscence or disinsertion (numbers) (%) 39 (41.5) 28 (40.0) 4 (66.7) 7 (38.9)   0.200a 0.932a 0.239a
Levator function (range) (mm) 11.3 ± 2.7 (7.0–17.0) 11.0 ± 2.7 (7.0–17.0) 11.8 ± 2.2 (7.0– 14.0) 11.1 ± 2.6 (8.0– 16.0) 0.784
Response to phenylephrine eye drop (range) (mm) 0.45 ± 0.67 (0–3.0) 0.42 ± 0.55 (0–3.0) 0.08 ± 0.20 (0–0.5) 0.75 ± 0.90 (0–2.0) 0.058
Preoperative MRD-1 (range) (mm) 0.18 ± 1.22 (−3.0 to 2.5) 0.18 ± 1.2 (−3.0 to 2.5) 0.50 ± 1.00 (0–2.5) 0.06 ± 1.3 (−3.0 to 2.0) 0.742
Postoperative 3-month MRD-1 (range) (mm) 2.70 ± 1.00 (1.0–5.0) 3.01 ± 0.87 (2.0–5.0) 3.17 ± 1.29 (2.0–5.0) 1.25 ± 0.26 (1.0–1.5) <0.001 0.564c <0.001d <0.001d
Length from the white line to fatty deposit (range) (mm) 4.75 ± 1.78 (2.0–10.0) 4.91 ± 1.08 (2.0 to 10.0)   3.85 ± 0.72 (3.0 to 5.0)    0.035e  
Length of the ALLA in patients without fatty deposit (range) (mm)    6.82 ± 0.32 (6.0–7.0)      
Amount of advancement of the levator aponeurosis (range) (mm) 1.86 ± 1.86 (0–6.0) 1.62 ± 1.90 (0–6.0) 0.75 ± 1.41 (0–3.5) 2.76 ± 1.18 (1.0–5.0) <0.001 0.235c <0.001d <0.001d
  1. MRD margin reflex distance; ALLA anterior layer of the levator aponeurosis
  2. aNo statistical significance using χ2 test
  3. bStatistical significance using χ2 test
  4. cTukey–Kramer test
  5. dTukey–Kramer test
  6. eMann–Whitney U test