Defects in optic fissure closure can lead to congenital ocular coloboma. This ocular malformation, often associated with microphthalmia, is described in various clinical forms with different inheritance patterns and genetic heterogeneity. In recent times, the identification of an increased number of genes involved in numerous cellular functions has led to a better understanding in optic fissure closure mechanisms. Nevertheless, most of these genes are also involved in wider eye growth defects such as micro-anophthalmia, questioning the mechanisms controlling both extension and severity of optic fissure closure defects. However, some genes, such as FZD5, have only been so far identified in isolated coloboma. Thus, to estimate the frequency of implication of different ocular genes, we screened a cohort of 50 patients affected by ocular coloboma by using targeted sequencing of 119 genes involved in ocular development. This analysis revealed seven heterozygous (likely) pathogenic variants in RARB, MAB21L2, RBP4, TFAP2A, and FZD5. Surprisingly, three out of the seven variants detected herein were novel disease-causing variants in FZD5 identified in three unrelated families with dominant inheritance. Although molecular diagnosis rate remains relatively low in patients with ocular coloboma (14% (7/50) in this work), these results, however, highlight the importance of genetic screening, especially of FZD5, in such patients. Indeed, in our series, FZD5 variants represent half of the genetic causes, constituting 6% (3/50) of the patients who benefited from a molecular diagnosis. Our findings support the involvement of FZD5 in ocular coloboma and provide clues for screening this gene during current diagnostic procedures.
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We acknowledge generous support from the patients and their families as well as Claire Jeanton-Scaramouche for her precious help.
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Aubert-Mucca, M., Pernin-Grandjean, J., Marchasson, S. et al. Confirmation of FZD5 implication in a cohort of 50 patients with ocular coloboma. Eur J Hum Genet (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0695-8