Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Nutrition and Health (including climate and ecological aspects)

Weekday sleep duration and morning tiredness are independent covariates of breakfast skipping in adolescents

Abstract

Background/Objectives

Although regular breakfast consumption is associated with various health benefits, many adolescents skip this meal, particularly those with shorter sleep durations. In order to better understand the association between sleep duration and breakfast consumption among youth, we analyzed the association between weekday morning tiredness and daily breakfast consumption in adolescents, and explored the mediating role of morning tiredness in the association between sleep duration and daily breakfast consumption on weekdays.

Subjects/Methods

The “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children” survey conducted in 2018 in French-speaking Belgian schools provided data (n = 8444 11–20-year-old adolescents) on bed- and wake-up times, and on the frequency of breakfast consumption and morning tiredness on weekdays. Multivariable logistic regressions and mediation analyses assessed the association, on weekdays, of morning tiredness (≥4 school mornings a week vs. less) and sleep duration (hours), with daily breakfast consumption, and the mediating role of morning tiredness.

Results

Feeling tired ≥4 school mornings a week was associated with lower odds of daily breakfast consumption on weekdays (aOR = 0.77 (95% CI 0.69–0.86)). In turn, on weekdays, sleep duration was positively associated with daily breakfast consumption (aOR = 1.29 (95% CI 1.23–1.36)), even after adjustment for morning tiredness (aOR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.21–1.35)). Morning tiredness only explained 4.9% of the association between sleep duration and daily breakfast consumption.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that in adolescents, sleep duration and morning tiredness are independent correlates of daily breakfast consumption on weekdays.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Flow chart of inclusion in analyses.
Fig. 2: Mediation model with weekday morning tiredness as a mediator of the relationship between sleep duration and breakfast consumption on weekdays.

Data availability

Data and code used in this study are available on request to the principal investigators.

References

  1. Blondin SA, Anzman‐Frasca S, Djang HC, Economos CD. Breakfast consumption and adiposity among children and adolescents: an updated review of the literature. Pediatr Obes. 2016;11:333–48.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Barr SI, DiFrancesco L, Fulgoni VL. Breakfast consumption is positively associated with nutrient adequacy in Canadian children and adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2014;112:1373–83.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Coulthard JD, Palla L, Pot GK. Breakfast consumption and nutrient intakes in 4–18-year-olds: UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2012). Br J Nutr. 2017;118:280–90.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Mielgo-Ayuso J, Valtueña J, Cuenca-García M, Gottrand F, Breidenassel C, Ferrari M, et al. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher blood vitamin status in adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Public Health Nutr. 2017;20:1393–404.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Rampersaud GC, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:743–60.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cooper SB, Bandelow S, Nevill ME. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent schoolchildren. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:431–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Adolphus K, Lawton CL, Champ CL, Dye L. The effects of breakfast and breakfast composition on cognition in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Adv Nutr. 2016;7:590S–612S.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Blasetti A, Franchini S, Castorani V, Comegna L, Fornari E, Daniele F, et al. Skipping breakfast is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in overweight and obese prepubertal children. Int J Endocrinol. 2020;2020:1849274.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bel S Enquête de consommation alimentaire 2014-2015. Rapport 1. Régularité des repas. Brussels, Belgium: WIV-ISP; 2015. https://fcs.wiv-isp.be/nl/Gedeelde%20%20documenten/FRANS/MF_FR.pdf. Accessed 13 April 2020.

  10. Lazzeri G, Ahluwalia N, Niclasen B, Pammolli A, Vereecken C, Rasmussen M, et al. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in daily breakfast consumption and its socio-demographic correlates in adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC study. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151052.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Inchley J, Currie D, Budisavljevic S, Torsheim T, Jåstad A, Cosma A, et al., editors. Spotlight on adolescent health and well-being. Findings from the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in Europe and Canada. International report. Volume 1. Key findings. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2020. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/332091/9789289055000-eng.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2021.

  12. Wijtzes AI, Jansen W, Jaddoe VW, Franco OH, Hofman A, van Lenthe FJ, et al. Social inequalities in young children’s meal skipping behaviors: the generation R study. PloS ONE. 2015;10:e0134487.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hallström L, Vereecken CA, Ruiz JR, Patterson E, Gilbert CC, Catasta G, et al. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study. Appetite. 2011;56:649–57.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Pearson N, Biddle SJ, Gorely T. Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. A systematic review. Appetite. 2009;52:1–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Gebremariam MK, Henjum S, Hurum E, Utne J, Terragni L, Torheim LE. Mediators of the association between parental education and breakfast consumption among adolescents: the ESSENS study. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17:61 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-017-0811-2

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Chaput JP. Sleep patterns, diet quality and energy balance. Physiol Behav. 2014;134:86–91.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Chaput J, Dutil C. Lack of sleep as a contributor to obesity in adolescents: impacts on eating and activity behaviors. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016;13:103 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0428-0

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Moore M, Meltzer LJ. The sleepy adolescent: causes and consequences of sleepiness in teens. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2008;9:114–21.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Tynjala J, Kannas L, Levalahti L. Perceived tiredness among adolescents and its association with sleep habits and use of psychoactive substances. J Sleep Res. 1997;6:189–98.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Due P, Holstein BE, Lynch J, Diderichsen F, Gabhain SN, Scheidt P, et al. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries. Eur J Public Health. 2005;15:128–32.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Scheidt P, Overpeck MD, Wyatt W, Aszmann A. Adolescents’ general health and well-being. In: Currie C, Hurrelmann K, Settertobulte W, Smith R, Todd J, editors. Health and health behavior among young people. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization. 2000, pp. 24–38.

  22. Findlay SM. The tired teen: a review of the assessment and management of the adolescent with sleepiness and fatigue. Paediatr Child Health. 2008;13:37–42.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Lebacq T, Pedroni C, Desnouck V, Holmberg E, Moreau N, Dujeu M, et al. Alimentation, activité physique, sédentarité et sommeil. Comportements, santé et bienêtre des élèves en 2018 – Enquête HBSC en Belgique francophone. Service d’Information, Promotion, Éducation Santé (SIPES), École de Santé Publique. Brussel, Belgium: Université libre de Bruxelles; 2019. http://sipes.ulb.ac.be/. Accessed 19 May 2020.

  24. Inchley J, Currie D, Cosma A, Samdal O. Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study protocol: background, methodology and mandatory items for the 2017/2018 survey. http://www.hbsc.org/methods/. Accessed 9 October 2020.

  25. Torsheim T, Cavallo F, Levin KA, Schnohr C, Mazur J, Niclasen B, et al. Psychometric validation of the revised family affluence scale: a latent variable approach. Child Indic Res. 2016;9:771–84. Group FDSS

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kohler U, Karlson KB, Holm A. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models. Stata J. 2011;11:420–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Kronholm E, Puusniekka R, Jokela J, Villberg J, Urrila AS, Paunio T, et al. Trends in self‐reported sleep problems, tiredness and related school performance among Finnish adolescents from 1984 to 2011. J Sleep Res. 2015;24:3–10.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Gariépy G, Janssen I, Sentenac M, Elgar FJ. School start time and sleep in Canadian adolescents. J Sleep Res. 2017;26:195–201.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Shaw ME. Adolescent breakfast skipping: an Australian study. Adolescence 1998;33:851–61.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Mullan B, Wong C, Kothe E, O’Moore K, Pickles K, Sainsbury K. An examination of the demographic predictors of adolescent breakfast consumption, content, and context. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:264 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-264

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Golley RK, Maher CA, Matricciani L, Olds TS. Sleep duration or bedtime? Exploring the association between sleep timing behaviour, diet and BMI in children and adolescents. Int J Obes. 2013;37:546–51. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2012.212

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ogilvie RP, Lutsey PL, Widome R, Laska MN, Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D. Sleep indices and eating behaviours in young adults: findings from Project EAT. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21:689–701.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Grummon AH, Sokol RL, Lytle LA. Is late bedtime an overlooked sleep behaviour? Investigating associations between sleep timing, sleep duration and eating behaviours in adolescence and adulthood. Public Health Nutr. 2021;24:1671–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Fleig D, Randler C. Association between chronotype and diet in adolescents based on food logs. Eat Behav. 2009;10:115–8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Boschloo A, Ouwehand C, Dekker S, Lee N, De Groot R, Krabbendam L, et al. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents. Mind Brain Educ. 2012;6:81–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Roßbach S, Diederichs T, Nöthlings U, Buyken AE, Alexy U. Relevance of chronotype for eating patterns in adolescents. Chronobiol Int. 2018;35:336–47.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Randler C. The concept of chronotype in eating behaviors. In: Preedy V, Watson R, Martin C, editors, Handbook of behavior, food and nutrition. Springer: New York, USA; 2011, pp. 771–82.

  38. Matricciani L. Subjective reports of children’s sleep duration: does the question matter? A literature review. Sleep Med. 2013;14:303–11.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. St-Onge MP, Mikic A, Pietrolungo CE. Effects of diet on sleep quality. Adv Nutr. 2016;7:938–49.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Jacka FN, Kremer PJ, Berk M, de Silva-Sanigorski AM, Moodie M, Leslie ER, et al. A prospective study of diet quality and mental health in adolescents. PloS One. 2011;6:e24805.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Whitaker RC, Dearth-Wesley T, Herman AN, Oakes JM, Owens JA. A quasi-experimental study of the impact of school start time changes on adolescents’ mood, self-regulation, safety, and health. Sleep Health. 2019;5:466–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the schools and students for their participation in the French-speaking Belgian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. They also thank the HBSC international coordination center (University of St Andrews, United Kingdom) and the HBSC data management center (University of Bergen, Norway) for their scientific support, as well as Amélie Bellanger, Omer Cimpaye, Véronique Desnouck, Morgane Eggen, Estelle Méroc and Nathalie Moreau (SIPES, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium) for their collaboration in data collection, cleaning and management.

Funding

This research was funded by the Birth and Children Office (ONE), the Walloon Region, and the French Community Commission.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

TL contributed to the data collection, conceptualized the study, determined the methodology used, conducted the analyses and wrote the original draft. KC conceptualized the study, validated the methodology used, reviewed and edited the draft. CP and MD contributed to the data collection, reviewed and edited the draft. EH reviewed and edited the draft. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thérésa Lebacq.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical approval

The 2018 HBSC survey was approved by the Ethics Review Committee of the Faculty of Psychology (Université libre de Bruxelles, ULB) and the regional education boards of the school networks. The adolescents and their parents were fully informed about the study requirements. Students could refuse to complete the questionnaire without any formal procedure. Parents could refuse their child’s participation by filling in a form provided together with the information documents.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lebacq, T., Holmberg, E., Pedroni, C. et al. Weekday sleep duration and morning tiredness are independent covariates of breakfast skipping in adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-022-01117-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-022-01117-2

Search

Quick links