Diet is one of the important modifiable factors in prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), making it important to understand geographical variations of food consumption pattern, their similarities and differences across various regions. Asian Indian diet patterns are mostly carbohydrate-based and with vast regional diversity. Staple food, food groups consumed, meat consumption pattern, type of fermented foods, food preparations, type of cooking oil used and food ingredients vary with different regions of India. There has been a slow transition from consumption of coarse grains to refined grains owing to socio-economic, cultural and other factors. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, fats, ready-to-eat foods and sugar is higher in urban population whereas consumption of carbohydrates in the form of cereals and millets is higher among the rural population. Cereal grains followed by pulses and legumes are main sources of protein, given that the frequency of meat consumption is low even among non-vegetarians in India compared to other countries. Overall, there is a tendency towards consumption of calorie-dense foods at the cost of food diversity, which may also result in micronutrient deficiencies as well as development of T2D and related metabolic diseases. Public health strategies and policy level decisions involving stakeholders with diet and lifestyle modification as focal points are absolute priorities to prevent and manage the burden of obesity and T2D in India.
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Sachdev, M., Misra, A. Heterogeneity of Dietary practices in India: current status and implications for the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 77, 145–155 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-01067-1