Iodine deficiency in pregnant women is related to impaired foetal growth and development. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women from different regions of the world.
Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, five electronic databases and Google Scholar grey literature were searched until 10 April 2021. Two reviewers independently conducted article selection, data extraction, and assessment of the risk of bias. Meta-analyses with random effects, subgroup analyses, and meta-regressions were performed.
In total, 4639 observational articles were found, with 61 eligible for inclusion. The population consisted of 163,021 pregnant women adults and adolescents, and the overall prevalence of insufficient iodine intake was 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 47–60; I2 = 99.8%). Pregnant women who live in insufficient iodine status country had a higher prevalence (86%; 95% CI: 78–93; I² =97.0%) of inadequate iodine nutritional status than to those living in country considered sufficient (51%; 95% IC: 45–57; I² = 99.8%).
Despite the progress in iodine fortification policies and periodic monitoring of the iodine nutritional status of the population worldwide, salt iodination alone may not be sufficient to provide adequate iodine status to pregnant women. Thus, other actions may be necessary to improve the nutritional clinical care of pregnant group.
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Patriota, E.S.O., Lima, I.C.C., Nilson, E.A.F. et al. Prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnancy worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-01006-0