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Nutrition during the early life cycle

Preliminary exploration of the use of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) in Vietnamese mothers



This preliminary pilot study aims to explore the use of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) and Children’s Eating Behaviour Question (CEBQ) in a sample of Vietnamese mothers.


Cross-sectional data from the FPSQ and CEBQ were collected from a convenience sample of mothers (n = 102) who attended the Ho Chi Minh City Nutrition Centre in Viet Nam. Mothers had at least one child aged 2–5 years. The reliability of the questionnaire subscales was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Face validity was assessed using dialogue from a translation-back-translation procedure undertaken by an expert committee, and cognitive interviews conducted in a subsample of mothers (n = 6). Based on these findings, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were performed to assess the underlying structures of both questionnaires in this sample.


Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the original questionnaires ranged from 0.23 to 0.92. Limitations in translation and comprehension of items surfaced, warranting modifications of the questionnaires, which were subsequently examined using EFA. EFA of the FPSQ and CEBQ revealed a six-factor structure with 23 items, and a six-factor structure with 27 items, respectively, which were interpretable solutions for this sample. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were >0.70 for all subscales in the revised questionnaires.


Modified versions of the FPSQ and CEBQ are proposed for use in Viet Nam. However, prior to their use, further reliability and validity testing must be undertaken in larger samples, including assessment of test–retest reliability and construct validity, as well as confirmatory factor analysis to verify the proposed factor structures.

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The authors would like to acknowledge QUT in Australia and the HCMC Nutrition Centre in Viet Nam for providing resources for data collection. They would also like to extend their appreciation to staff at the HCMC Nutrition Centre and students at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in HCMC who assisted with data collection. Finally, the authors would like to thank mothers who dedicated time to participating in this study.


This research was supported by the Australian Government under the New Colombo Plan (Reference: 15804). The Australian Government was not involved in this research.

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Data collection was undertaken by SA, CQT, and DND, and data analyses were conducted by SA and EJ. The manuscript was written by SA and revised by DG, SN, and EJ.

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Correspondence to S. Ayre.

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DG is currently funded by the Queensland Children’s Hospital Foundation with a philanthropic grant from Woolworths. Both organisations were not involved in this research.

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Ayre, S., Gallegos, D., Nambiar, S. et al. Preliminary exploration of the use of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) in Vietnamese mothers. Eur J Clin Nutr (2021).

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