Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $33.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Enstad S, Cheema S, Thomas R, Fichorova RN, Martin CR, O’Tierney-Ginn P, et al. The impact of maternal obesity and breast milk inflammation on developmental programming of infant growth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021;75:180–8.
Reyes SM, Miliku K, Chan D, Brockway M, Turner S, Kearns KA, et al. Messaging and methodological considerations when researching breastfeeding and obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021; Epub ahead of print.
Fields DA, George B, Williams M, Whitaker K, Allison DB, Teague A, et al. Associations between human breast milk hormones and adipocytokines and infant growth and body composition in the first 6 months of life. Pediatr Obes. 2017;12:78–85.
Fields DA, Demerath EW. Relationship of insulin, glucose, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α in human breast milk with infant growth and body composition. Pediatr Obes. 2012;7:304–12.
Isganaitis E, Venditti S, Matthews TJ, Lerin C, Demerath EW, Fields DA. Maternal obesity and the human milk metabolome: associations with infant body composition and postnatal weight gain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;110:111–20.
Sims CR, Lipsmeyer ME, Turner DE, Andres A. Human milk composition differs by maternal BMI in the first 9 months postpartum. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020;112:548–57.
Whitaker KM, Marino RC, Haapala JL, Foster L, Smith KD, Teague AM, et al. Associations of maternal weight status before, during, and after pregnancy with inflammatory markers in breast milk. Obesity. 2017;25:2092–9.
Panagos PG, Vishwanathan R, Penfield-Cyr A, Matthan NR, Shivappa N, Wirth MD, et al. Breastmilk from obese mothers has pro-inflammatory properties and decreased neuroprotective factors. J Perinatol. 2016;36:284–90.
Ohlendorf JM, Robinson K, Garnier-Villarreal M. The impact of maternal BMI, gestational weight gain, and breastfeeding on early childhood weight: analysis of a statewide WIC dataset. Prev Med. 2019;118:210–5.
Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, et al. Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. JAMA. 2001;285:413–20.
Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Bogdanovich N, Sevkovskaya Z, et al. PROBIT Study Group. Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child height, weight, adiposity, and blood pressure at age 6.5 y: evidence from a large randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1717–21.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) 5R01HD043921, NIH RR01070, NIH P30 DK040561, NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences UL1 TR000062.
Conflict of interest
The author declares no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Enstad, S., Cheema, S., Thomas, R. et al. Response to messaging and methodological considerations when researching breastfeeding and obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00900-x