Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Messaging and methodological considerations when researching breastfeeding and obesity

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. Enstad S, Cheema S, Thomas R, Fichorova RN, Martin CR, O'Tierney-Ginn P, et al. The impact of maternal obesity and breast milk inflammation on developmental programming of infant growth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021;75:180–88.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Chan D, Goruk S, Becker AB, Subbarao P, Mandhane PJ, Turvey SE, et al. Adiponectin, leptin and insulin in breast milk: associations with maternal characteristics and infant body composition in the first year of life. Int J Obes. 2018;42:36–43.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Reyes SM, McDermid J, Chan D, Granger M, Sidhu K, Musse S, et al. Human milk components and child growth in -*the first 2 years: a systematic review. PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews. 2020, CRD42020187350. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020187350.

  4. Horta B, Bahl R, Martinés J, Victora C Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2007.

  5. Azad MB, Vehling L, Chan D, Klopp A, Nickel NC, McGavock JM, et al. Infant feeding and weight gain: Separating breast milk from breastfeeding and formula from food. Pediatrics. 2018;142:e20181092.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ling C, Ronn T. Epigenetics in human obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cell Metab. 2019;29:1028–44.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Wang L, van Grieken A, van der Velde LA, Vlasblom E, Beltman M, L’Hoir MP, et al. Factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding and consumption of non-recommended foods among Dutch infants: the BeeBOFT study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Garza C, Johnson CA, O’Brian Smith E, Nichols BL. Changes in the nutrient composition of human milk during gradual weaning. AJCN. 1983;37:61–65.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60:49–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Much D, Brunner S, Vollhardt C, Schmid D, Sedlmeier EM, Brüderl M, et al. Breast milk fatty acid profile in relation to infant growth and body composition: results from the INFAT study. Pediatr Res. 2013;74:230–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Amir LH, Donath S. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2007;7:9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

No financial assistance was received directly in support of this correspondence. The Manitoba Interdisciplinary Lactation Center is supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation and Research Manitoba. MBA is supported by a Canada Research Chair in the Developmental Origins of Chronic Disease, and is a CIFAR Fellow in the Humans and the Microbiome Program. She receives research funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Research Manitoba, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Manitoba Children’s Hospital Foundation, Prolacta Biosciences, Mitacs, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, and the Garfield G. Weston Foundation. DC is supported by a Canadian Nurses Foundation Scholarship. MB is supported by Mitacs, the Garfield G. Weston Foundation, and a Molly Towel Perinatal Research Foundation Fellowship. ST is supported by a Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship. AS receives research funding from New Frontiers in Research Funds supported by the Tri-agency Institutional Programs Secretariat, Research Manitoba, the Manitoba Children’s Hospital Foundation, CHRIM, Diabetes Research Envisioned and Accomplished in Manitoba Theme at CHRIM, Japanese Agency for Medical Research and Development, US National Academy of Medicine, and the University of Manitoba. LEK has received funding from CIHR, Research Manitoba, Mitacs, SickKids Foundation, Canadian Cancer Society, Thorlakson Fund, Rady Innovation Fund and CHRIM. NCN is supported by the Public Health Agency of Canada for his work with the Breastfeeding Committee of Canada. He holds research funding from CIHR, Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Research Manitoba, and the Manitoba Government. None of these entities had any involvement in the development or publication of this correspondence.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

SMR, KM, DC, and MBA planned and wrote the initial draft correspondence. All authors provided feedback and approved the final version.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Meghan B. Azad.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest. They report the following: MBA serves in a volunteer capacity as Secretary to the International Society for Research on Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML) and as a member of the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine Committee on Scanning New Evidence on the Nutrient Content of Human Milk. She regularly speaks at conferences and workshops on infant nutrition, some sponsored by Medela, the Institute for the Advancement of Breastfeeding & Lactation Education, and Prolacta Biosciences. MBA, SMR, and MB have contributed to online courses on breast milk and the infant microbiome produced by Microbiome Courses. SMR serves as the scientific advisor for SimpliFed, created and operates Milk and Microbes, and is currently pursuing the development and patenting of a human milk pasteurizer. She also leads a systematic review for the International Milk Consortium (IMiC) on the associations between human milk analytes and infant/child growth in the first 2 years. ST serves in a volunteer capacity as Trainee Mentorship Series Coordinator to the Trainee Interest Group of ISRHML. KK and CR are co-founders of the Winnipeg Breastfeeding Center. They regularly give presentations to clinical professionals and trainees and about lactation support, without remuneration. NCN served in a volunteer capacity as the Scientific Chair for Breastfeeding at the American Public Health Association and served on the Executive Council for the International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation until April 2020. None of these entities had any involvement in the development or publication of this correspondence.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Reyes, S.M., Miliku, K., Chan, D. et al. Messaging and methodological considerations when researching breastfeeding and obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr 75, 1523–1525 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00867-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00867-9

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links