An analysis of omega-3 fatty acid status in a population of pregnant women with obesity, at higher risk of preterm birth

Abstract

An updated Cochrane Review showed that maternal supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduced preterm birth, offering a potential strategy for prevention. We hypothesised that pregnant women with obesity, at higher risk of preterm birth, would have low omega-3 fatty acid levels and may benefit from supplementation. Our study measured the omega-3 fatty acid levels of 142 participants from the Healthy Mums and Babies study, Counties Manukau, Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau is a multi-ethnic community with high rates of socio-economic deprivation, obesity, and preterm birth. Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels were measured from samples collected between 120 and 176 weeks’ gestation. Contrary to our hypothesis, participants in our study had similar or higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids to those reported in pregnant populations in Australia, Norway, China, and Germany. Our findings emphasise the importance of testing omega-3 fatty acid status before supplementing groups at risk of preterm birth.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the support and expertise of Dr Erica Zarate and Saras Green at the Metabolomics Mass Spectrometry Centre, University of Auckland for the RBC analysis and Raphael Bang at BioDEMI for his data processing expertise. We would also like to extend our thanks to the HUMBA participants and wider research team involved in the HUMBA trial, including the research midwives who were involved in the specimen collection and dietary data collection.

Funding

The HUMBA trial received financial and in-kind support from the following funding sources: financial support from Cure Kids (Child Health Research Charity); Lottery Health Research Grants; Faculty Research Development Fund, University of Auckland; Counties Manukau Health, South Auckland; Two Mercia Barnes Trust Grants (administered by the New Zealand Committee of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists); Nurture Foundation; and the Heart Foundation of New Zealand. In-kind support: Christian Hansen (Chr. Hansen A/S, Horsholm, Denmark) provided the probiotic/placebo capsules free of charge. The red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid analysis was funded by CW’s and LM’s University of Auckland research funds, and a grant to MBJ from the University of Auckland “Healthy People Healthy Communities” seed fund. The funding sources had no involvement in the trial design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; in the writing of the report; and the decision to submit the article for publication.

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LM and CW conceived the study idea and sourced funding to complete the study. JdS performed the analysis, interpretation of the data, and wrote the manuscript. MBJ provided statistical support in the study design and analysis of the data and sourced additional funding. LM, CW, KO, CM, and RT were involved in the HUMBA study conception, recruitment, and completion. All authors reviewed the manuscript, provided feedback, and approved the final version.

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Correspondence to Jamie V. de Seymour.

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de Seymour, J., Jones, M.B., Okesene-Gafa, K.A.M. et al. An analysis of omega-3 fatty acid status in a population of pregnant women with obesity, at higher risk of preterm birth. Eur J Clin Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-0613-8

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