Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Nutrition in acute and chronic diseases

Effect of Lactobacillus casei on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in patients with alcoholic liver injury

Abstract

Background

The present study aims to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in patients with alcoholic liver injury.

Methods

In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 158 recruited alcoholic liver injury patients were randomized to three treatments for 60 days: low-dose group (LP, n = 58, 100 ml of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS)), high-dose group (HP, n = 54, 200 ml of LcS), and positive control group (PC, n = 46, 100 ml of special drinks without active Lactobacillus casei). Another group of 20 healthy people was served as normal control group (NC).

Results

The serum levels of TG and LDLC in the HP group were significantly decreased by 26.56% and 23.83%, respectively than those in the PC group (P < 0.05). After supplementation of Lactobacillus casei, there was a significant increase in the amount of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium when compared with the PC group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Supplementation of Lactobacillus casei can improve lipid metabolism and regulate intestinal flora disorders in patients with alcoholic liver injury.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Changes of liver function and lipid metabolism before and after intervention.
Fig. 2: The quantitative test results of the six bacteria in the intestinal flora.

References

  1. Dunn W, Shah VH. Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Liver Disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20:445–56.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Osna NA, Donohue TM, Kharbanda KK. Alcoholic liver disease: pathogenesis and current management. Alcohol Res Curr Rev. 2017;38:147.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Mathurin P, Bataller R. Trends in the management and burden of alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2015;62:S38–S46.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Felix S, Christian D, Jochen H, Ramon B. Pathophysiology and management of alcoholic liver disease: update 2016. Gut Liver. 2017;11:173–88.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Wang FS, Fan JG, Zhang Z, Gao B, Wang HY. The global burden of liver disease: the major impact of China. Hepatology. 2014;60:2099–108.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Ge N, Liang H, Liu Y, Ma AG, Han L. Protective effect of Aplysin on hepatic injury in ethanol-treated rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;62:361–72.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. MD Z. Abstinence: the best way to control alcoholic liver diseases. Chin J Hepatol. 2003.

  8. Szabo G. Gut-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:30–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Mcc C, Nl L, Cm F, Jl G, D A, C G, et al. Comparing the effects of acute alcohol consumption in germ-free and conventional mice: the role of the gut microbiota. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:240.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Liu Y, Zhang J, Gao SL, Li TJ, Liang H. Quantitative analysis of gut flora in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Acta Nutrimenta Sin. 2018;40:36–41.

    Google Scholar 

  11. LI TJ, Zhang YJ, Wang ZL, Liu Y, Liang H. Protective Effect of Lactobacillus casei on Acrylamide-Induced Intestinal Injury in Rats. Food Science. 2018;39(9):128–33.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Zhang YH, Cong WH, Liu JX. Effect of crocin on mitochondrial dynamics in SH-SY5Y cells against injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Chinese Pharmacol. Bull. 2016;32:986–91.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Liang ZY, Liu Y, Xue ML, Liu J, Liang H. Inhibitory effect and immunological mechanism of Lactobacillus casei on induction of breast cancer by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats. Carcinog, Teratog Mutagen. 2017;029:7–12.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Wu YY, Dou M, Ma AG, Liu Y, Liang H. Effect of Lactobacillus casei on behavior and intestinal flora in rats with depression. Acta Acad Med Qingdao Univ. 2017;53:163–7.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Arora S, Kaur IP, Chopra K, Rishi P. Efficiency of double layered microencapsulated probiotic to modulate proinflammatory molecular markers for the management of alcoholic liver disease. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:715130.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ritze Y, Bárdos G, Claus A, Ehrmann V, Bergheim I, Schwiertz A, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG protects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. PloS ONE. 2014;9:e80169.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Chang B, Sang L, Wang Y, Tong J, Zhang D, Wang B. The protective effect of VSL#3 on intestinal permeability in a rat model of alcoholic intestinal injury. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13:151.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Kim WG, Kim HI, Kwon EK, Han MJ, Kim DH. Lactobacillus plantarum LC27 and Bifidobacterium longum LC67 mitigate alcoholic steatosis in mice by inhibiting LPS-mediated NF-κB activation through restoration of the disturbed gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2018;9:4255–65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Organization WH. Global Status Report on Alcohol And Health: World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); 2014.

  20. Tang YL, Xiang XJ, Wang XY, Cubells JF, Babor TF, Hao W. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed. Bull World Health Organ. 2013;91:270–6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. National Workshop on Fatty Liver and Alcoholic Liver Disease, Chinese Society of Hepatology, Chinese Medical Association; Fatty Liver Expert Committee, Chinese Medical Doctor Association. [Guidelines of prevention and treatment for alcoholic liver disease: a 2018 update]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2018;26:188–94.

  22. Zhang XS, Liu YH, Zhang Y, Xu Q, Liu Z, Yang XY, et al. probiotics supplementation on respiratory infection and body immune function of soldiers in military training. Acad J Chin PLA Med Sch. 2018;39:54–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Matsumoto K, Takada T, Shimizu K, Moriyama K, Kawakami K, Hirano K, et al. Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools. J Biosci Bioeng. 2010;110:547–52.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Matsumoto K, Takada T, Shimizu K, Kado Y, Kawakami K, Makino I, et al. The effects of a probiotic milk product containing lactobacillus casei strain shirota on the defecation frequency and the intestinal microflora of sub-optimal health state volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study. Bioence Microbiota Food Health. 2006;25:39–48.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Li XS, Liu JZ, Li SF. Effect of Jiedu Qinggan decoction combined with reduced glutathione in treating alcoholic hepatitis. Chinese J Integr Tradit West Med Dig. 2012;20:52–5.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Kirpich IA, Solovieva NV, Leikhter SN, Shidakova NA, Lebedeva OV, Sidorov PI, et al. Probiotics restore bowel flora and improve liver enzymes in human alcohol-induced liver injury: a pilot study. Alcohol. 2008;42:675–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Kondrup J, Allison SP, Elia M, Vellas B. § MP. ESPEN guidelines for nutrition screening 2002. Clin Nutr. 2003;22:415–21.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Federico A, Dallio M, Caprio GG, Ormando VM, Loguercio C. Gut microbiota and the liver. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2017;63:385–98.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Hartmann P, Hochrath K, Horvath A, Chen P, Seebauer CT, Llorente C, et al. Modulation of the intestinal bile acid/farnesoid X receptor/fibroblast growth factor 15 axis improves alcoholic liver disease in mice. Hepatology. 2018;67:2150–66.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Inokuchi S, Tsukamoto H, Park E, Liu ZX, Brenner DA, Seki E. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates alcohol-induced steatohepatitis through bone marrow-derived and endogenous liver cells in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1509–18.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Mazagova M, Wang L, Anfora AT, Wissmueller M, Lesley SA, Miyamoto Y, et al. Commensal microbiota is hepatoprotective and prevents liver fibrosis in mice. FASEB J. 2015;29:1043–55.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Wang WJ, Xiao P, Xu HQ, Niu JQ, Gao YH. Hepatology do. Growing burden of alcoholic liver disease in China: a review. World J Gastroenterol. 2019;25:1445–56.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Han SH, Suk KT, Kim DJ, Kim MY, Baik SK, Kim YD, et al. Effects of probiotics (cultured Lactobacillus subtilis/Streptococcus faecium) in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis: randomized-controlled multicenter study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;27:1300–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Barone R, Rappa F, Macaluso F, Caruso Bavisotto C, Sangiorgi C, Di Paola G, et al. Alcoholic liver disease: a mouse model reveals protection by Lactobacillus fermentum. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2016;7:e138.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Albano E. Oxidative mechanisms in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Mol Asp Med. 2008;29:9–16.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Kohn G, Wong HR, Bshesh K, Zhao B, Vasi N, Denenberg A, et al. Heat shock inhibits tnf-induced ICAM-1 expression in human endothelial cells via I kappa kinase inhibition. Shock. 2002;17:91–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. McClain CJ, Hill DB, Song Z, Chawla R, Watson WH, Chen T, et al. S-Adenosylmethionine, cytokines, and alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol. 2002;27:185–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Szabo Gyongyi. Alcoholic liver disease and the gut-liver axis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:1321.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Bull-Otterson L, Feng W, Kirpich I, Wang Y, Qin X, Liu Y, et al. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53028.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Colborn JM, Byrd BD, Koita OA, Krogstad DJ. Estimation of copy number using SYBR Green: confounding by AT-rich DNA and by variation in amplicon length. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:887–92.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Ma Y, Li R, Liu Y, Liu M, Liang H. Protective Effect of Aplysin Supplementation on Intestinal Permeability and Microbiota in Rats Treated with Ethanol and Iron. Nutrients. 2018;10:681.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Shen TD, Pyrsopoulos N, Rustgi VK. Microbiota and the liver. Liver Transplant.2018;24:539–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Frosali S, Pagliari D. How the intricate interaction among toll-like receptors, microbiota, and intestinal immunity can influence gastrointestinal. Pathology. 2015;2015:489821.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Chen P, Torralba M, Tan J, Embree M, Zengler K, Stärkel P, et al. Supplementation of saturated long-chain fatty acids maintains intestinal eubiosis and reduces ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:203–14.e16.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. McClain CJ, Barve SS, Barve A, Marsano L. Alcoholic liver disease and malnutrition. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:815–20.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Huang XY, Li GP, Kou JG, Li L, Xia XM, Yang L, et al. Relationship between intestinal dysbacteriosis and Child-Pugh classification in patients with cirrhosis. J Clin Hepatol. 2015;31:392–5.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Chen QX, Zhu JL, Xu Y. Effect of probiotics on nutritional status, inflammatory reaction and chemotherapy-related complications in patients having undergone chemotherapeutic treatment of colorectal cancer. Health Res. 2020;40:68–71.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Zhang L, Sun YS, He TZ. Effects of viable Tri-Bifidobacteria on inflammatory factors, immunity and nutritional status of patients with gastric cancer after partial resection. Chin J Microecol. 2019;31:680–3.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Liang H, Lyu R, Fu Y, Zhou ZT, Liu Y, Zhou XB, et al. Effects of probiotics on alcoholic liver injury in rats and its mechanisms. Chinese Pharmacol Bull. 2016;32:991–7.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Marsano LS, Mendez C, Hill D, Barve S, Mcclain CJ. Diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and its complications. Alcohol Res. 2003;27:247–56.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was funded and supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81573137 and 81872605).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

HL, YL, and XL conceived and designed the experiments; XL, XG, HZ, YM, and YL performed experiments and analyzed the data. HL and YL were responsible for the critical review of the study design, protocol, and methodology, providing scientific advice to this study. XL and YL contributed to interpreting the data as well as writing and editing the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hui Liang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, X., Liu, Y., Guo, X. et al. Effect of Lactobacillus casei on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in patients with alcoholic liver injury. Eur J Clin Nutr 75, 1227–1236 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00852-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00852-8

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links