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Association of dietary patterns with blood pressure and body adiposity in adolescents: a systematic review

Abstract

This paper aimed to systematically review the results of observational studies that investigated the association of dietary patterns with blood pressure and body adiposity markers in adolescents. Articles were searched in July 2020 in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Of the 3408 studies found, 24 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Almost all studies (n = 23) identified at least one unhealthy pattern, predominantly characterized as consumption of confectionery, refined grains, sweets, sweetened drinks, red meats, and processed meats. Fourteen of the twenty-four studies found a significant association between any dietary pattern and blood pressure and/or body adiposity markers. There was a positive association of dietary patterns - characterized by the consumption of foods rich in sodium, animal fat, refined carbohydrates, and low in fiber - with increased blood pressure and body adiposity. Our findings highlight the importance of studies with this scope, whose results can support the surveillance of adolescent’s health. However, considering the limited number of studies that found a significant association and their limitations, the present results should be interpreted carefully. More prospective studies are needed to determine how adherence to dietary patterns could influence blood pressure and body adiposity markers in the long term.

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Fig. 1: PRISMA flow diagram.

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Funding

This work was supported by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Brazil, through a Master grant (MEAN; Finance Code 001). However, CAPES had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this manuscript.

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MEAN and PRMR designed the study. MEAN and APM developed syntax for searching databases and prepared the manuscript. MEAN and MRS contributed to the literature searches, data extraction, and independent reviewing. BMG, DBC and PRMR formulated the research question and prepared the manuscript. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript and approved it.

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Correspondence to Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues.

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Neves, M.E.A., Souza, M.R.d., Gorgulho, B.M. et al. Association of dietary patterns with blood pressure and body adiposity in adolescents: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr 75, 1440–1453 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00850-w

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