Crystal Ball series

How the cookie crumbled, and the need to strike while the iron is hot

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Carpenter KJ. The estimation of available lysine in animal-source foods. Biochem J. 1960;77:604–10.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Hurrell RF, Carpenter KJ. Maillard reactions in foods. In: Hoyem T, Kvale O, editors. Physical, chemical and biological changes in foods caused by thermal processing. London: Applied Science; 1977. p. 168–84.

  3. 3.

    Finot PA, Mottu F, Bujard E, Mauron J. N-substituted lysines as sources of lysine in nutrition. J Adv Exp Med Biol. 1978;105:549–70.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Waterlow JC, Payne PR. The protein gap. Nature. 1975;258:113–7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Hurrell RF, Furniss DE, Burri J, Whittaker P, Lynch SR, Cook JD. Iron fortification of infant cereals: a proposal for the use of ferrous fumarate or ferrous succinate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:1274–82.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Hurrell R, Egli I. Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1461S–1467S.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hurrell RF, Juillerat MA, Reddy MB, Lynch SR, Dassenko SA, Cook JD. Soy protein, phytate and iron absorption in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:573–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hurrell RF, Reddy MB, Juillerat MA, Cook JD. Degradation of phytic acid in cereal porridges improves iron absorption by human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1213–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Davidsson L, Galan P, Kastenmayer P, Cherouvrier F, Juillerat MA, Hercberg S, et al. Iron absorption in infants: the influence of phytic acid and ascorbic acid in formulas based on soy isolate. Pediatr Res. 1994;36:816–22.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Davidsson L, Kastenmayer P, Yuen M, Lönnerdal B, Hurrell RF. Influence of lactoferrin on iron absorption from human milk in infants. Pediatr Res. 1994;35:117–24.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Staubli Asobayire F, Adou P, Davidsson L, Cook JD, Hurrell RF. Prevalence of iron deficiency with and without concurrent anemia in population groups with high prevalences of malaria and other infections: a study in Côte d’Ivoire. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:776–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Petry N, Olofin I, Hurrell RF, Boy E, Wirth JP, Moursi M, et al. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency in low, medium, and high human development index countries: a systematic analysis of national surveys. Nutrients. 2016;8:693.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Zimmermann MB, Wegmueller R, Zeder C, Chaouki N, Rohner F, Saissi M, et al. Dual fortification of salt with iodine and micronized ferric pyrophosphate: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:952–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Zimmermann MB, Zeder C, Muthayya S, Winichagoon P, Chaouki N, Aeberli I, et al. Adiposity in women and children from transition countries predicts decreased iron absorption, iron deficiency and a reduced response to iron fortification. Int J Obes. 2008;32:1098–104.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Zimmermann MB, Fucharoen S, Winichagoon P, Sirankapracha P, Zeder C, Gowachirapant S, et al. Iron metabolism in heterozygotes for hemoglobin E (HbE), alpha-thalassemia 1, or beta-thalassemia and in compound heterozygotes for HbE⁄beta-thalassemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:1026–31.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Boy E, Haas JD, Petry N, Cercamondi CI, Gahutu JB, Mehta S, et al. Efficacy of iron biofortified crops. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev. 2017;17:11879–92.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    de Pee S, Tsang BL, Montgomery S. Rice fortification. In: Venkatesh Mannar MG, Hurrell RF, editors. Food fortification in a globalized world. London: Academic Press; 2018. p. 131–41.

  18. 18.

    Allen LH, De Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell RF, editors. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2006.

  19. 19.

    WHO, FAO, UNICEF, GAIN, MI, FFI. Recommendations on wheat and maize flour fortification. Meeting report: interim consensus statement. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Cercamondi CI, Egli IM, Ahouandjinou E, Dossa R, Zeder C, Salami L, et al. Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in Beninese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1385–92.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Hurrell RF. Safety and efficacy of iron supplements in malaria-endemic areas. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011;59:64–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ganz T. Iron and infection. Int J Hematol. 2018;107:7–15.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Bundi KC, Nalwoga A, Lubyayi L, Muriuki JM, Mogire RM, Opi H, et al. Iron deficiency is associated with reduced levels of Plasmodium falciparum-specific antibodies in African children. Clin Infect Dis. ciaa728. 2020.

  24. 24.

    Lynch S, Pfeiffer CM, Georgieff MK, Brittenham G, Fairweather-Tait S, Hurrell RF, et al. Biomarkers of nutrition for development (BOND)-iron review. J Nutr. 2018;148:1001S–67S.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Kassebaum NJ, Jasrasaria R, Naghavi M, Wulf SK, Johns N, Lozano R, et al. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood. 2014;123:615–24.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Richard F. Hurrell.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hurrell, R.F. How the cookie crumbled, and the need to strike while the iron is hot. Eur J Clin Nutr (2020).

Download citation