Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem, including in China. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for the development and progression of subclinical renal disease (SRD) in a Chinese population. We also examined whether the impact of the risk factors on SRD changed over time.
To identify the predictors of SRD, we performed a cross-sectional study of the 2432 subjects in our Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Cohort. A subgroup of 202 subjects was further analyzed over a 12-year period from 2005 to 2017 to determine the risk factors for the development and progression of SRD.
In cross-sectional analysis, elevated blood pressure, male gender, diabetes, body mass index, and triglyceride were independently associated with a higher risk of SRD. In longitudinal analysis, an increase in total cholesterol over a 4-year period and an increase in serum triglyceride over a 12-year period were independently associated with progression of albuminuria. Finally, increases in both total cholesterol and serum uric acid over a 4-year follow-up showed an independent association with a modest reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
In this study of a Chinese cohort, we show several metabolic abnormalities as independent risk factors for subclinical renal disease in a Chinese cohort. In addition, we demonstrate that the effects of total cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid on the development and progression of albuminuria or the decline in eGFR vary at different points of follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of early detection of metabolic abnormalities to prevent SRD.
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We would particularly like to thank Dr Robert Safirstein (Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA) for language editing. Many thanks to Drs. Rui-Hai Yang and Jun Yang (Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Hanzhong People’s Hospital, Hanzhong, China) for providing assistance during follow-up. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 81600327 (YW), No. 81870319 (J-JM) and No. 81700368 (CC), Institutional Foundation of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University No. 2019QN-06, the Clinical Research Award of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University of China No. XJTU1AF-CRF-2017-021 (YW) and XJTU1AF-CRF-2019-004 (J-JM), Grants from China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (Nos. 2018T111075 and 2018M631177), Special Financial Grant from Shaanxi Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018BSHTDZZ14), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. xjj2018103), Grants from the Major Chronic Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Control Research Key Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017YFC1307604 and 2016YFC1300104), and Grant from Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology of First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University (KLMC-2018-06).
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Wang, Y., Du, MF., Gao, WH. et al. Risk factors for subclinical renal damage and its progression: Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study. Eur J Clin Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00752-x