Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Nutrition and Health (including climate and ecological aspects)

The cumulative effects of chilling and reheating a carbohydrate-based pasta meal on the postprandial glycaemic response: a pilot study


This pilot study investigated the effects of chilling and reheating a pasta-based meal on the postprandial glycaemic response. In this single-blind crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers consumed identical pasta meals (pasta, olive oil, and tomato sauce), served either freshly prepared, chilled, or chilled/reheated, on three separate randomised occasions. Capillary blood samples were taken for two hours postprandially. A significant difference in glucose Incremental Area Under the Curve was observed (p = 0.006), with the greatest difference observed between the freshly cooked and chilled/reheated meals (p = 0.041). Significant differences in incremental peak glucose were also observed (p = 0.018). These results suggest that making simple changes to domestic food processing methods can reduce the glycaemic excursion following a pasta meal, with the potential for health benefit.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Postprandial glucose response to three identical pasta meals, served either freshly cooked, chilled, or chilled and reheated.


  1. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th ed. [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 May 15].

  2. Ruijgrok C, Blaak EE, Egli L, Dussort P, Vinoy S, Rauh SP, et al. Reducing postprandial glucose in dietary intervention studies and the magnitude of the effect on diabetes-related risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2020;1–15.

  3. Leeman M, Östman E, Björck I. Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:1266–71.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Chao C, Yu J, Wang S, Copeland L, Wang S. Mechanisms underlying the formation of complexes between maize starch and lipids. J Agric Food Chem. 2018;66:272–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Reed MO, Ai Y, Leutcher JL, Jane J. Effects of cooking methods and starch structures on starch hydrolysis rates of rice. J Food Sci. 2013;78:H1076–81.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. BBC Two - Trust Me, I’m a Doctor, Series 2, Episode 1 - Can my leftovers be healthier than the original meal? [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 29].

  7. Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, Gibbs AL, Lang V, Slama G, et al. Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev. 2005;18:145–71.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Lu L, Monro J, Lu J, Rush E. Effect of cold storage, reheating, and particle sizes on in vitro glucose release and starch digestibility among five rice products in Auckland, New Zealandu, LW. Rice Res Open Access. 2016;4:1000171.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ai Y, Hasjim J, Jane J. Effects of lipids on enzymatic hydrolysis and physical properties of starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;92:120–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Lukić I, da Ros A, Guella G, Camin F, Masuero D, Mulinacci N, et al. Lipid profiling and stable isotopic data analysis for differentiation of extra virgin olive oils based on their origin. Molecules. 2019;25:4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hodges C, Archer F, Chowdhury M, Evans BL, Ghelani DJ, Mortoglou M, et al. Method of food preparation influences blood glucose response to a high-carbohydrate meal: a randomised cross-over trial. Foods. 2020;9:23.

  12. Sonia S, Witjaksono F, Ridwan R. Effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24:620–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Thanks to Dr Francesca P. Robertson (University of Surrey) for assisting with the laboratory analysis of the blood samples.


This work was part-funded by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and sponsored by the University of Surrey.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



TMR and MDR designed the study and conducted the research. TMR analysed the data. All authors contributed to interpretation of results and writing the report.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tracey M. Robertson.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Robertson, T.M., Brown, J.E., Fielding, B.A. et al. The cumulative effects of chilling and reheating a carbohydrate-based pasta meal on the postprandial glycaemic response: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr 75, 570–572 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links