High consumption of low- and non-fat dairy products improves vascular dysfunction associated with elevated arterial blood pressure (BP). Currently, it is unknown if conventional full-fat dairy products improve vascular functions.
To determine if adding whole milk and full-fat dairy products to the normal routine diet improves vascular function in adults with elevated BP.
Sixty adults (age ± SEM; 58 ± 2 years) with elevated BP (systolic/diastolic; 120–159/ < 99 mmHg) were randomized into a controlled crossover intervention trial consisting of two 4-week dietary periods. The high dairy condition consisted of adding four daily servings of whole milk or full-fat dairy products to the normal diet and eliminated all dairy intake during the control (no dairy) condition. A 2-week washout period separated the dietary conditions.
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) did not differ significantly between high dairy (11.3 ± 0.3 versus 10.9 ± 0.3 m/sec) and no dairy conditions (11.2 ± 0.3 versus 11.0 ± 0.3 m/sec). The results were consistent when ultrasound-derived vascular distension measures (arterial compliance, beta-stiffness index, and elastic modulus) were evaluated. Cardiovagal baroreceptor sensitivity (via Valsalva maneuver) demonstrated no significant difference for either dietary condition. Brachial arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) did not differ significantly during the high dairy (5.7 ± 0.5 versus 5.4 ± 0.6%) and no dairy conditions (6.5 ± 0.5 versus 5.6 ± 0.6%).
The solitary addition of whole milk and full-fat dairy products has no effect on subclinical vascular function in adults with elevated BP.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Aroor AR, DeMarco VG, Jia G, Sun Z, Nistala R, Meininger GA, et al. The role of tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. Front Endocrinol. 2013;4:1–7.
Tomiyama H, Ishizu T, Kohro T, Matsumoto C, Higashi Y, Takase B, et al. Longitudinal association among endothelial function, arterial stiffness and subclinical organ damage in hypertension. Int J Cardiol. 2017;253:161–6.
Peng X, Haldar S, Deshpande S, Irani K, Kass DA. Wall stiffness suppresses Akt/eNOS and cytoprotection in pulse-perfused endothelium. Hypertension. 2003;41:378–81.
Najjar SS, Scuteri A, Shetty V, Wright JG, Muller DC, Fleg JL, et al. Pulse wave velocity is an independent predictor of the longitudinal increase in systolic blood pressure and of incident hypertension in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:1377–83.
Blacher J, Asmar R, Djane S, London GM, Safar ME. Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1999;33:1111–7.
Monahan KD, Dinenno FA, Seals DR, Clevenger CM, Desouza CA, Tanaka H. Age-associated changes in cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity are related to central arterial compliance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H284–H289.
Benjamin EJ, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, Mitchell GF, Vasan RS, Keaney JF, et al. Clinical correlates and heritability of flow-mediated dilation in the community: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2004;109:613–9.
Dharmashankar K, Widlansky ME. Vascular endothelial function and hypertension: insights and directions. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2010;12:448–55.
Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Hinderliter A, Watkins LL, Craighead L, Lin P-H, et al. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood pressure: the ENCORE study. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:126–35.
Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, Di Palo C, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2004;292:1440–6.
Crichton GE, Elias MF, Dore GA, Abhayaratna WP, Robbins MA. Relations between dairy food intake and arterial stiffness. Hypertension. 2012;59:1044–51.
Machin DR, Park W, Alkatan M, Mouton M, Tanaka H. Effects of non-fat dairy products added to the routine diet on vascular function: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;25:364–9.
Recio-Rodriguez JI, Gomez-Marcos MA, Patino-Alonso M-C, Sanchez A, Agudo-Conde C, Maderuelo-Fernandez JA, et al. Association between fat amount of dairy products with pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness in adults. Nutr J. 2014;13:37.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L, et al. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction. Circulation. 2010;121:586–613.
Dehghan M, Mente A, Zhang X, Swaminathan S, Li W, Mohan V, et al. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2017;390:2050–62.
Li Y, Hruby A, Bernstein AM, Ley SH, Wang DD, Chiuve SE, et al. Saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66:1538–48.
Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:535–46.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.
Roy SJ, Lapierre SS, Baker BD, Delfausse LA, Machin DR, Tanaka H. High dietary intake of whole milk and full-fat dairy products does not exert hypotensive effects in adults with elevated blood pressure. Nutr Res. 2019;64:72–81.
Tanaka H, Dinenno FA, Monahan KD, Clevenger CM, DeSouza CA, Seals DR. Aging, habitual exercise, and dynamic arterial compliance. Circulation. 2000;102:1270–5.
Tanaka H, Dinenno FA, Monahan KD, DeSouza CA, Seals DR. Carotid artery wall hypertrophy with age is related to local systolic blood pressure in healthy men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:82–7.
Asmar R. Arterial stiffness and pulse wave velocity: clinical applications. Paris, France: Elsevier; 1999. pp. 7–8.
Van Bortel LM, Kool MJ, Boudier HAS. Effects of antihypertensive agents on local arterial distensibility and compliance. Hypertension. 1995;26:531–4.
Moreau KL, Donato AJ, Seals DR, DeSouza CA, Tanaka H. Regular exercise, hormone replacement therapy and the age-related decline in carotid arterial compliance in healthy women. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;57:861–8.
Corretti MC, Anderson TJ, Benjamin EJ, Celermajer D, Charbonneau F, Creager MA, et al. Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:257–65.
Eskurza I, Seals DR, DeSouza CA, Tanaka H. Pharmacologic versus flow-mediated assessments of peripheral vascular endothelial vasodilatory function in humans. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88:1067–9.
Laosiripisan J, Tarumi T, Gonzales MM, Haley AP, Tanaka H. Association between cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity and baseline cerebral perfusion of the hippocampus. Clin Auton Res. 2015;25:213–8.
Yoshizawa M, Maeda S, Miyaki A, Misono M, Choi Y, Shimojo N, et al. Additive beneficial effects of lactotripeptides and aerobic exercise on arterial compliance in postmenopausal women. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H1899–1903.
Yoshizawa M, Maeda S, Miyaki A, Misono M, Choi Y, Shimojo N, et al. Additive beneficial effects of lactotripeptides intake with regular exercise on endothelium-dependent dilatation in postmenopausal women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:368–72.
Livingstone KM, Lovegrove JA, Cockcroft JR, Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Givens DI. Does dairy food intake predict arterial stiffness and blood pressure in men?: evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Hypertension. 2012;61:42–7.
Mancia G, Parati G, Pomidossi G, Casadei R, Di Rienzo M, Zanchetti A. Arterial baroreflexes and blood pressure and heart rate variabilities in humans. Hypertension. 1986;8:147–53.
James MA, Robinson TG, Panerai RB, Potter JF. Arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex sensitivity in the elderly. Hypertension. 1996;28:953–60.
DeSouza CA, Shapiro LF, Clevenger CM, Dinenno FA, Monahan KD, Tanaka H, et al. Regular aerobic exercise prevents and restores age-related declines in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy men. Circulation. 2000;102:1351–7.
Dinenno FA, Tanaka H, Stauffer BL, Seals DR. Reductions in basal limb blood flow and vascular conductance with human ageing: role for augmented alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction. J Physiol. 2001;536:977–83.
Weidmann P, De Chatel R, Schiffmann A, Bachmann E, Beretta-Piccoli C, Reubi F, et al. Interrelations between age and plasma renin, aldosterone and cortisol, urinary catecholamines, and the body sodium/volume state in normal man. Klin Wochenschr. 1977;55:725–33.
Drouin-Chartier J-P, Gigleux I, Tremblay AJ, Poirier L, Lamarche B, Couture P. Impact of dairy consumption on essential hypertension: a clinical study. Nutr J. 2014;13:83–92.
Houston MC, Harper KJ. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium: their role in both the cause and treatment of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens. 2008;10:3–11.
Xu J-Y, Qin L-Q, Wang P-Y, Li W, Chang C. Effect of milk tripeptides on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition. 2008;24:933–40.
Yamaguchi N, Kawaguchi K, Yamamoto N. Study of the mechanism of antihypertensive peptides VPP and IPP in spontaneously hypertensive rats by DNA microarray analysis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;620:71–7.
Hirota T, Nonaka A, Matsushita A, Uchida N, Ohki K, Asakura M, et al. Milk casein-derived tripeptides, VPP and IPP induced NO production in cultured endothelial cells and endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic rings. Heart Vessels. 2011;26:549–56.
Brenneman DE, Rutledge CO. Alteration of catecholamine uptake in cerebral cortex from rats fed a saturated fat diet. Brain Res. 1979;179:295–304.
Panek RL, Dixon WR, Rutledge CO. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment. J Pharm Exp Ther. 1985;233:578–83.
Roberts CK, Barnard RJ, Sindhu RK, Jurczak M, Ehdaie A, Vaziri ND. A high-fat, refined-carbohydrate diet induces endothelial dysfunction and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and depresses NOS protein expression. J Appl Physiol. 2005;98:203–10.
Chung S, Park CW, Shin SJ, Lim JH, Chung HW, Youn D-Y, et al. Tempol or candesartan prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;25:389–99.
Flamant M, Tharaux P-L, Placier S, Henrion D, Coffman T, Chatziantoniou C, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor trans-activation mediates the tonic and fibrogenic effects of endothelin in the aortic wall of transgenic mice. FASEB J. 2003;17:327–9.
Westphal S, Taneva E, Kästner S, Martens-Lobenhoffer J, Bode-Böger S, Kropf S, et al. Endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial lipemia is neutralized by addition of proteins to the fatty meal. Atherosclerosis. 2006;185:313–9.
Nestel PJ, Mellett N, Pally S, Wong G, Barlow CK, Croft K, et al. Effects of low-fat or full-fat fermented and non-fermented dairy foods on selected cardiovascular biomarkers in overweight adults. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:2242–9.
Nestel P, Pally S, MacIntosh G, Greeve M, Middleton S, Jowett J, et al. Circulating inflammatory and atherogenic biomarkers are not increased following single meals of dairy foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:25–31.
Supported by a research grant from the National Dairy Council.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02397902 at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
About this article
Cite this article
Roy, S.J., Fico, B.G., Baker, B.D. et al. Effects of full-fat dairy products on subclinical vascular function in adults with elevated blood pressure: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 74, 9–16 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-019-0435-8