Table 2 Consumption of specific food items, specific food groups, and diversified dietary intake in the last 24 h among children aged 6–23 months by household wealth status and mother’s education, NFHS-4, India, 2015–16

From: Socio-economic patterning of food consumption and dietary diversity among Indian children: evidence from NFHS-4

Food consumption in the last 24 h Household wealth status Mother’s education
Poorest % (95% CI) Poorer % (95% CI) Middle % (95% CI) Richer % (95% CI) Richest % (95% CI) No education % (95% CI) Primary % (95% CI) Secondary % (95% CI) Higher % (95% CI)
Specific food items          
 Juice 9.6 (9.1–10.0) 13.2 (12.7–13.7) 20.1 (19.5–20.7) 26.9 (26.1–27.7) 34.9 (34.0–35.8) 11.3 (10.9–11.8) 14.7 (14.0–15.4) 22.2 (21.8–22.6) 33.1 (32.1–34.2)
 Tinned powdered/ Fresh milk 29.6 (28.9–30.2) 36.8 (36.1–37.5) 40.5 (39.8–41.3) 47.0 (46.2–47.9) 52.8 (51.8–53.8) 33.8 (33.2–34.5) 36.5 (35.6–37.5) 41.5 (41.0–42.1) 52.9 (51.8–54.0)
 Formula milk 5.7 (5.4–6.0) 7.9 (7.5–8.3) 11.7 (11.1–12.2) 14.6 (14.0–15.2) 14.8 (14.1–15.5) 5.7 (5.4–6.0) 7.3 (6.8–7.9) 12.3 (11.9–12.6) 17.4 (16.6–18.2)
 Fortified baby food 6.3 (6.0–6.7) 11.6 (11.1–12.1) 17.7 (17.1–18.3) 22.2 (21.5–23.0) 25.7 (24.9–26.6) 7.3 (6.9–7.6) 10.7 (10.1–11.3) 18.6 (18.2–19.1) 28.8 (27.8–29.8)
 Soup/Clear broth 10.5 (10.0–10.9) 12.8 (12.3–13.3) 18.1 (17.5–18.7) 21.3 (20.6–22.0) 22.9 (22.0–23.7) 11.1 (10.7–11.5) 13.4 (12.8–14.1) 18.6 (18.2–19.0) 23.2 (22.3–24.2)
 Other liquids 18.2 (17.6–18.7) 19.4 (18.8–20.0) 22.2 (21.5–22.9) 24.0 (23.2–24.7) 24.7 (23.9–25.6) 17.3 (16.8–17.8) 20.0 (19.1–20.7) 23.0 (22.6–23.5) 25.3 (24.3–26.2)
 Chicken, duck, or other birds 4.8 (4.5–5.1) 4.8 (4.5–5.1) 4.9 (4.6–5.3) 4.9 (4.5–5.3) 4.3 (3.9–4.6) 4.3 (4.0–4.6) 4.8 (4.4–5.2) 5.1 (4.9–5.3) 4.4 (4.0–4.9)
 Bread, noodles, other grains 62.8 (62.1–63.5) 62.7 (62.0–63.1) 62.3 (61.5–63.1) 63.0 (62.1–63.8) 63.9 (63.0–64.8) 61.4 (60.8–62.1) 64.5 (63.6–65.4) 62.9 (62.3–63.4) 64.4 (63.3–65.5)
 Potatoes, cassava, tubers 21.9 (21.3–22.5) 21.0 (20.4–21.6) 20.7 (20.1–21.3) 21.6 (20.9–22.3) 21.3 (20.5–22.1) 19.8 (19.2–20.3) 20.7 (19.9–21.4) 22.0 (21.6–22.4) 22.9 (22.0–23.9)
 Eggs 11.1 (10.6–11.5) 14.0 (13.4–14.5) 15.9 (15.4–16.5) 17.7 (17.0–18.3) 14.3 (13.6–15.0) 10.4 (10.0–10.8) 14.0 (13.3–14.7) 16.3 (15.9–16.7) 16.4 (15.5–17.2)
 Pumpkin, carrots, squash 18.3 (17.8–18.9) 19.0 (18.4–19.6) 19.0 (18.4–19.6) 21.3 (20.6–22.0) 21.9 (21.1–22.7) 16.9 (16.4–17.4) 18.7 (17.9–19.4) 20.8 (20.3–21.2) 22.9 (22.0–23.9)
 Dark green leafy vegetables 29.2 (28.5–29.8) 28.6 (27.9–29.3) 27.9 (27.1–28.6) 28.5 (27.7–29.3) 27.7 (26.9–28.6) 25.6 (25.1–26.2) 28.1 (27.3–29.0) 29.7 (29.2–30.1) 30.3 (29.3–31.3)
 Mangoes, papayas, Vit A fruits 14.6 (14.1–15.1) 16.6 (16.0–17.1) 18.6 (17.9–19.2) 22.5 (21.5–23.1) 22.3 (21.5–23.1) 14.7 (14.2–15.2) 16.0 (15.3–16.7) 20.1 (19.7–20.5) 23.2 (22.2–24.2)
 Any other fruits 17.5 (17.0–18.1) 21.5 (20.9–22.1) 25.2 (24.5–25.9) 29.0 (28.3–29.8) 29.3 (28.4–30.2) 17.9 (17.4–18.4) 20.5 (19.7–21.2) 26.4 (25.9–26.8) 31.5 (30.5–32.5)
 Liver, heart, other organ meat 4.7 (4.4–5.0) 4.6 (4.3–4.9) 5.5 (5.1–5.8) 6.1 (5.6–6.5) 5.0 (4.6–5.4) 4.4 (4.2–4.7) 4.6 (4.2–5.0) 5.8 (5.6–6.0) 4.9 (4.4–5.3)
 Fish, shellfish 3.6 (3.3–3.9) 4.5 (4.2–4.8) 4.8 (4.5–5.2) 6.2 (5.8–6.6) 5.2 (4.8–5.7) 3.1 (2.8–3.3) 4.0 (3.6–4.4) 5.6 (5.3–5.8) 6.3 (5.7–6.8)
 Beans, peas, or lentils 11.4 (10.9–11.8) 13.0 (12.6–13.7) 13.2 (12.6–13.7) 14.6 (14.0–15.2) 15.2 (14.5–15.9) 10.4 (10.0–10.9) 11.5 (10.9–12.1) 14.4 (14.0–14.8) 17.4 (16.5–18.2)
 Cheese, yogurt, other milk products 6.3 (6.0–6.7) 8.1 (7.7–8.6) 9.5 (9.1–10.0) 12.1 (11.6–12.7) 13.1 (12.4–13.7) 6.6 (6.3–6.9) 7.9 (7.4–8.4) 10.5 (10.2–10.8) 13.7 (12.9–14.5)
 Other solid/semi-solid food 17.3 (16.8–17.9) 20.3 (19.8–21.0) 22.7 (22.0–23.4) 23.9 (23.2–24.7) 22.7 (21.9–23.5) 16.4 (15.9–16.9) 20.9 (20.1–21.7) 23.3 (22.8–23.7) 23.9 (22.9–24.8)
 Any other meat 3.4 (3.1–3.6) 3.5 (3.2–3.8) 4.3 (4.0–4.6) 4.4 (4.1–4.8) 3.9 (3.6–4.3) 3.3 (3.1–3.6) 4.0 (3.6–4.4) 4.3 (4.1–4.4) 3.3 (2.9–3.7)
 Yogurt 4.1 (3.8–4.4) 6.3 (6.0–6.7) 10.8 (10.3–11.3) 13.7 (13.1–14.2) 15.8 (15.1–16.5) 5.7 (5.4–6.0) 8.4 (7.9–9.0) 10.6 (10.3–10.9) 14.7 (13.9–15.5)
Specific food groups          
 Grains, roots, and tubers 69.4 (68.7–70.0) 71.7 (71.0–72.4) 74.4 (73.7–75.1) 76.3 (75.6–77.1) 78.3 (77.5–79.1) 68.7 (68.1–69.4) 73.2 (72.3–74.0) 74.9 (74.5–75.4) 79.5 (78.6–80.4)
 Legumes and nuts 11.4 (12.5–13.5) 13.2 (12.6–13.7) 13.2 (12.6–13.7) 14.6 (14.0–15.2) 15.2 (14.5–15.9) 10.4 (10.0–10.9) 11.5 (10.9–12.1) 14.4 (14.3–14.8) 17.4 (16.5–18.2)
 Dairy products 39.3 (38.6–40.0) 50.0 (49.2–50.7) 58.2 (57.4–58.9) 66.1 (65.3–66.9) 71.5 (70.6–72.3) 44.0 (43.4–44.7) 49.9 (48.9–50.9) 58.8 (58.3–59.3) 73.2 (72.2–74.2)
 Flesh foods 8.9 (8.5–9.3) 9.5 (9.1–9.9) 10.3 (9.8–10.8) 11.5 (10.9–12.0) 10.1 (9.5–10.7) 8.1 (7.7–8.4) 9.3 (8.8–9.9) 11.0 (10.7–11.3) 10.9 (10.2–11.6)
 Eggs 11.1 (10.6–11.5) 14.0 (13.4–14.5) 15.9 (15.4–16.5) 17.7 (17.0–18.3) 14.3 (13.6–15.0) 10.4 (10.0–10.8) 14.0 (13.3–14.7) 16.3 (15.9–16.7) 16.4 (15.5–17.2)
 Vit A rich fruits and vegetables 25.6 (24.9–26.2) 26.7 (26.0–27.3) 27.9 (27.2–28.6) 32.1 (31.3–32.9) 32.8 (31.9–33.7) 24.6 (24.0–25.2) 26.8 (25.9–27.6) 30.0 (29.5–30.5) 33.9 (32.9–34.9)
 Other fruits and vegetables 34.0 (33.3–34.6) 35.2 (34.5–36.0) 36.9 (36.1–37.7) 39.0 (38.1–39.8) 39.8 (38.9–40.8) 31.8 (31.2–32.5) 35.0 (34.1–36.0) 38.4 (37.9–38.9) 42.7 (41.6–43.8)
 Mean dietary diversity score 2.0 (1.94–1.99) 2.2 (2.1–2.2) 2.3 (2.3–2.3) 2.5 (2.5–2.5) 2.5 (2.5–2.6) 1.9 (1.9–2.0) 2.2 (2.1–2.2) 2.4 (2.4–2.4) 2.6 (2.6–2.7)
 Adequately diversified dietary intake 17.7 (17.1–18.2) 21.1 (20.5–21.7) 23.9 (23.2–24.5) 28.4 (27.6–29.2) 27.8 (26.9–28.6) 17.1 (16.6–17.7) 20.5 (19.7–21.2) 25.6 (25.2–26.1) 30.4 (29.4–31.4)