Epidemiology

Secular trends in Dietary Inflammatory Index among adults in the United States, 1999–2014

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to evaluate secular trends in Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores in the United States between 1999 and 2014.

Methods

Data from adults over 19 years from the 1999 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 39,191) were used. DII scores, at each 2-year cycle, were evaluated from a 24-h recall, including 26 food parameters for DII calculation. Analyses were conducted in 2018.

Results

For the entire sample, there was a quadratic trend (Ptrend < 0.001), with the DII scores peaking in 2003–2004, and then decreasing during the cycles from 2005 to 2014. Similar quadratic trends (Ptrend < 0.001) were observed by age, gender, race-ethnicity, and education.

Conclusion

Males, non-Hispanic Blacks, younger adults, and those with less education adults had the highest DII scores (i.e., indicating the greatest inflammatory potential). The overall DII scores of the US population showed a quadratic trend from 1999 to 2014. Continued monitoring of DII changes is needed to better understand changes in the inflammatory potential of diet of American adults, and how they relate to changes in the risk of chronic disease.

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Author contributions

Author SR prepared part of the initial draft of the manuscript. Author NS assisted in the calculation of the DII. Author PDL computed the analyses. Authors SR, MK, NS, NV, JRM, JRH, MDW, and PDL helped conceptualize the study and provided feedback on various drafts of the manuscript.

Funding

MDW, NS, and JRH were supported by grant number R44DK103377 from NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. NIH had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.

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Correspondence to James R. Hébert.

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Conflict of interest

JRH owns controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), a company planning to license the right to his invention of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smart phone applications for patient counseling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. MDW and NS are employees of CHI. The remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Ryu, S., Shivappa, N., Veronese, N. et al. Secular trends in Dietary Inflammatory Index among adults in the United States, 1999–2014. Eur J Clin Nutr 73, 1343–1351 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0378-5

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