Dietary fat, fibre, satiation, and satiety—a systematic review of acute studies

Abstract

Background/Objectives

Humans appear to have innate energy regulation mechanisms that manifest in sensations of satiation during a meal and satiety post ingestion. Interactions between these mechanisms and the macronutrient profile of their contemporary food environment could be responsible for the dysregulation of this mechanism, resulting in a higher energy intake. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the impact of dietary fibre and fat both in isolation and combination on satiation and satiety.

Subjects/Methods

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken, from inception until end December 2017, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, in: Scopus, Food Science and Tech, CINAHL, and Medline databases. The search strategy was limited to articles in English language, published in peer-reviewed journals and human studies. Studies were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria.

Results

A total of 1490 studies were found initially using the selected search terms that were reduced to 12 studies suitable for inclusion. Following on from this, a meta-analysis was also conducted to determine any satiety effects from any potential interaction between dietary fat and fibre on satiety, no significant effects were found.

Conclusions

Owing to high energy density, fat (per kJ) had a weak effect on satiation as determined by the effect per gram for each unit of energy. The addition of fibre theoretically improves satiety by slowing the absorption of various nutrients including fat, although the meta-analysis as part of this review was unable to demonstrate an effect, perhaps reflecting a lack of sensitivity in research design. The potential to improve satiation and satiety responses by consuming fat together with carbohydrates containing fibre warrants further investigation.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014;384:766–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Hill JO, Wyatt HR, Peters JC. Energy balance and obesity. Circulation. 2012;126:126–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Leibowitz SF. Brain monoamines and peptides: role in the control of eating behavior. Fed Proc. 1986;45:1396–403.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Krauss RM, Decklebaum RJ, Ernst N, Fisher E, Howard BV, Knopp RH. Dietary guidelines for healthy American adults. Circulation. 1996;94:1795–1800.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Aranceta J, Pérez-Rodrigo C. Recommended dietary reference intakes, nutritional goals and dietary guidelines for fat and fatty acids: a systematic review. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:S8–22.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Cordain L, Brand Miller J, Eaton SB, Mann N, Holt SHA, Speth JD. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:682–92.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    O’keefe, JH and L Cordain. Cardiovascular disease resulting from a diet and lifestyle at odds with our Paleolithic genome: how to become a 21st-century hunter-gatherer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:101–08.

  8. 8.

    Blundell JE. What foods do people habitually eat? A dilemma for nutrition, an enigma for psychology. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:3–5.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Popkin BM, Adair LS, Ng SW. Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev. 2012;70:3–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Misra A, Singhal N, Khurana L. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29:289S–301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Austin GL, Ogden LG, Hill JO. Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals: 1971–2006. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:836–43.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    DeVries JW. On defining dietary fibre. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62:37–43.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Slavin JL. Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition. 2005;21:411–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Burton-Freeman B. Dietary fiber and energy regulation. J Nutr. 2000;130:272S–275.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR, Emmett PM, Jebb SA. Energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat dietary pattern is associated with increased fatness in childhood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:846–54.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Howarth NC, Huang T, Roberts S, McCrory MA. Dietary fiber and fat are associated with excess weight in young and middle-aged US adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:1365–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Murphy KG, Bloom SR. Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Nature. 2006;444:854.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Perry B, Wang Y. Appetite regulation and weight control: the role of gut hormones. Nutr Diabetes. 2012;2:e26.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Roberts SB, Young VR, Fuss P, Fiatarone MA, Richard B, Rasmussen H, et al. Energy expenditure and subsequent nutrient intakes in overfed young men. Am J Physiol. 1990;259:R461–69.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Blundell J. The control of appetite: basic concepts and practical implications. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1999;129:182–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Benelam B. Satiation, satiety and their effects on eating behaviour. Nutr Bull. 2009;34:126–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Clark MJ, Slavin JL. The effect of fiber on satiety and food intake: a systematic review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32:200–11.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 2001;59:129–39.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Wanders AJ, van den Borne JJGC, De Graff C, Hulshof T, Jonathan MC, Kristensen M, et al. Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2011;12:724–39.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    French SJ, Read NW. Effect of guar gum on hunger and satiety after meals of differing fat content: relationship with gastric emptying. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:87–91.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000097.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Gift AG. Visual analogue scales: Measurement of subjective phenomena. Nurs Res. 1989;38:286–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Thorlund K, Imberger G, Johnston BC, Walsh M, Awad T, Thabane L, et al. Evolution of heterogeneity (I 2) estimates and their 95% confidence intervals in large meta-analyses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39471.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Pedro. Pedro Scale. 28 April 2018. Available from: https://www.pedro.org.au/wp-content/uploads/PEDro_scale.pdf.

  30. 30.

    Maher CG, Sherrington C, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Elkins M. Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther. 2003;83:713–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Blundell JE, MacDiarmid JI. Passive overconsumption fat intake and short‐term energy balance. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;827:392–407.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Astrup A, Dyerberg J, Selleck M, Stender S. Nutrition transition and its relationship to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases. Obes Rev. 2008;9:48–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Booth D, Chase A, Campbell A. Relative effectiveness of protein in the late stages of appetite suppression in man. Physiol Behav. 1970;5:1299–302.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Gibson A, Seimon RV, Lee CMY, Ayre J, Franklin J, Markovic TP, et al. Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obes Rev. 2015;16:64–76.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Livingstone MBE, Robson PJ, Welch RW, Burns AA, Burrows MS, McCormack C. Methodological issues in the assessment of satiety. Näringsforskning. 2000;44:98–103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Svensson E. Guidelines to statistical evaluation of data from rating scales and questionnaires. J Rehabil Med. 2001;33:47–48.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Karalus M, Clark M, Greaves KA, Thomas W, Vickers Z, Kuyama M, et al. Fermentable fibers do not affect satiety or food intake by women who do not practice restrained eating. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112:1356–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Konings E, Schoffelen PF, Stegen J, Blaak EE. Effect of polydextrose and soluble maize fibre on energy metabolism, metabolic profile and appetite control in overweight men and women. Br J Nutr. 2014;111:111–21.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Wilmshurst P, Crawley J. The measurement of gastric transit time in obese subjects using 24 Na and the effects of energy content and guar gum on gastric emptying and satiety. Br J Nutr. 1980;44:1–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Tomlin J. The effect of the gel-forming liquid fibre on feeding behaviour in man. Br J Nutr. 1995;74:427–36.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Holt S, Delargy HJ, Lawton CL, Blundell JE. The effects of high-carbohydrate vs high-fat breakfasts on feelings of fullness and alertness, and subsequent food intake. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1999;50:13–28.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Bonnema AL, Altschwager D, Thomas W, Slavin JL. The effects of a beef‐based meal compared to a calorie matched bean‐based meal on appetite and food intake. J Food Sci. 2015;80:H2088–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Burton-Freeman B, Davis PA, Schneeman BO. Plasma cholecystokinin is associated with subjective measures of satiety in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:659–67.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Clegg M, Shafat A. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation. Appetite. 2010;54:517–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Ohlsson B, Höglund P, Roth B, Darwiche G. Modification of a traditional breakfast leads to increased satiety along with attenuated plasma increments of glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in humans. Nutr Res. 2016;36:359–68.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Zhou B, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Adachi C, Kawakami Y, Inaba H, Mori Y, et al. Age-related variations of appetite sensations of fullness and satisfaction with different dietary energy densities in a large, free-living sample of Japanese adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:1155–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Lafond DW, Greaves KA, Maki KC, Leidy HJ, Romsos DR. Effects of two dietary fibers as part of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) breakfasts on perceived appetite and gut hormones in overweight women. Nutrients. 2015;7:1245–66.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Olli K, Salli K, Alhoniemi E, Saarinen M, Ibarra A, Vasankari T, et al. Postprandial effects of polydextrose on satiety hormone responses and subjective feelings of appetite in obese participants. Nutr J. 2015;14:2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Rolls BJ, Castellanos VH, Halford JC, Kilara A, Panyam D, Pelkman CL, et al. Volume of food consumed affects satiety in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:1170–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Blundell JE, Burley VJ, Cotton JR, Lawton CL. Dietary fat and the control of energy intake: evaluating the effects of fat on meal size and postmeal satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:772S–77.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Lawton CL, Burley VJ, Wales JK, Blundell JE. Dietary fat and appetite control in obese subjects: weak effects on satiation and satiety. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:409–16.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Blundell JE, MacDiarmid JI. Fat as a risk factor for overconsumption: satiation, satiety, and patterns of eating. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:S63–69.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Astrup A, Ryan L, Grunwald GK, Storgaard M, Saris W, Melanson E, et al. The role of dietary fat in body fatness: evidence from a preliminary meta-analysis of ad libitum low-fat dietary intervention studies. Br J Nutr. 2000;83:S25–32.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Newby PK, Muller D, Hallfrisch J, Qiao N, Andres R, Tucker KL. Dietary patterns and changes in body mass index and waist circumference in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1417–25.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Benini L, Castellani G, Brighenti F, Heaton KW, Brentegani MT, Casiraghi MC, et al. Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food. Gut. 1995;36:825–30.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Heaton K. Food fibre as an obstacle to energy intake. Lancet. 1973;302:1418–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Slavin J, Green H. Dietary fibre and satiety. Nutr Bull. 2007;32:32–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Liddle RA, Morita ET, Conrad CK, Williams JA. Regulation of gastric emptying in humans by cholecystokinin. J Clin Investig. 1986;77:992.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Hunt J, Stubbs D. The volume and energy content of meals as determinants of gastric emptying. J Physiol. 1975;245:209.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support provided by the University of Canberra in the creation of this review.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andrew Warrilow.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Warrilow, A., Mellor, D., McKune, A. et al. Dietary fat, fibre, satiation, and satiety—a systematic review of acute studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 73, 333–344 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0295-7

Download citation

Search

Quick links