Table 1 General characteristics of the studies included in meta-analysis of dietary calcium intake and risk of developing hypertension

From: Dietary calcium intake and hypertension risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Author name, publication year Study name, country Age (range, mean; years) Follow-up duration (years) Participants/cases Gender Hypertension definition Dietary assessment Quality score (max. 9 points)
Alonso [18], 2005 The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, Spain >20 (37) 2.25 5880/180 M/W Validated self-reported physician diagnosis of HTN FFQ 8
Camo\(\tilde e\)s [19], 2010 EPIPorto study, Portugal ≥40 3.8 549/160 M/W Systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy FFQ 7
Dwyer [23], 1996 The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, USA 46 10 6634/1704 M/W Self-reported treatment with antihypertensive medication A single 24-h recall 8
Ascherio [31], 1992 Health Professionals Follow-up Study, USA 40–75 4 30,681/1248 M Validated self-reported HTN FFQ 8
Lelong [32], 2017 The NutriNet-Santé Cohort, France 42 3.4 80,426/2413 M/W Self-reported diagnosis of HTN and/or use of relevant BP medication Three 24-h dietary records 7
Talaei [33], 2017 The Singapore Chinese Health Study, Singapore 45–74 9.5 37,124/13,148 M/W Self-reported physician-diagnosed HTN FFQ 7
Wang [34], 2008 The Women’s Health Study, USA ≥45 10 28,886/8710 W Self-reports of a new physician diagnosis of HTN; self-reports of newly initiated antihypertensive treatment; self-reported SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg; or self-reported DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg (validated) FFQ 8
Witteman [35], 1989 The Nurses’ Health Study, USA 34–59 4 58,218/3275 W Validated self-reported HTN FFQ 9
  1. Abbreviations: BP blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FFQ Food Frequency Questionnaire, HTN hypertension, M men, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, SBP systolic blood pressure, W women