Towards appropriate feeding to prevent malnutrition in infants and toddlers

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1


  1. 1.

    WHO. Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries: a review of current scientific knowledge. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1998.

  2. 2.

    Uauy R, Solomons NW. Role of the international community in addressing the dual burden of malnutrition with a common agenda. SCN News. 2006;32:24–37.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Herbert V. The five possible causes of all nutrient deficiency: illustrated by deficiencies of vitamin B-12. Am J Clin Nutr. 1973;26:77–86.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Millward DJ. Nutrition, infection and stunting: the roles of deficiencies of individual nutrients and foods, and of inflammation, as determinants of reduced linear growth of children. Nutr Res Rev. 2017;30:50–72.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    WHO, PAHO. Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. Washington DC: World Health Organization & Pan American Health Organization; 2003.

  6. 6.

    WHO, UNICEF, USAID, AED, UCDavis, IFPRI. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices—Part I: Definitions. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.

  7. 7.

    WHO, UNICEF. Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2003.

  8. 8.

    Vossenaar M, Doak CM, Solomons NW. Challenges in the elaboration of a field interview instrument to capture information for the evaluation of adherence to the WHO/PAHO Guiding Principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. Food Nutr Bull. 2014;35:338–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Gordon JE, Chitkara ID, Wyon JB. Weanling diarrhea. Am J Med Sci. 1963;245:345–77.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Martorell R, Habicht JP, Yarbrough C, Lechtig A, Klein RE, Western KA. Acute morbidity and physical growth in rural Guatemalan children. Am J Dis Child. 1975;129:1296–301.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Annan RA, Webb P, Brown R. Management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM): current knowledge and practice. CMAM Forum Technical brief. 2014 [updated 2014]. Access on 5th May 2018.

  12. 12.

    Suri DJ, Moorthy D, Rosenberg IH. The role of dairy in effectiveness and cost of treatment of children with moderate acute malnutrition: a narrative review. Food Nutr Bull. 2016;37:176–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Victora CG, de Onis M, Hallal PC, Blössner M, Shrimpton R. Worldwide timing of growth faltering: revisiting implications for interventions. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e473–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Arsenault JE, Brown KH. Dietary protein intake in young children in selected low-income countries is generally adequate in relation to estimated requirements for healthy children, except when complementary food intake is low. J Nutr. 2017;147:932–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Ashorn P, Alho L, Ashorn U, Cheung YB, Dewey KG, Gondwe A, et al. Supplementation of maternal diets during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum and infant diets thereafter with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements does not promote child growth by 18 months of age in rural malawi: a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr. 2015;145:1345–53.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Institute of Medicine (US) Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary reference intakes: application in dietary assessment. Washington DC: National Academy of Science Press; 2000.

  17. 17.

    WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition, 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2004.

  18. 18.

    Allen LH. B vitamins in breast milk: relative importance of maternal status and intake, and effects on infant status and function. Adv Nutr. 2012;3:362–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Williams AM, Chantry CJ, Young SL, Achando BS, Allen LH, Arnold BF, et al. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal-source food, or vitamin B-12 intake in women in rural Kenya. J Nutr. 2016;146:1125–31.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Li C, Solomons NW, Scott ME, Koski KG. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) and proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mineral and trace element concentrations in human breast milk. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2018;46:55–61.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Yan J, Liu L, Zhu Y, Huang G, Wang PP. The association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Thompson AL, Bentley ME. The critical period of infant feeding for the development of early disparities in obesity. Soc Sci Med. 2013;97:288–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Haschke F, Grathwohl D, Detzel P, Steenhout P, Wagemans N, Erdmann P. Postnatal High Protein Intake Can Contribute to Accelerated Weight Gain of Infants and Increased Obesity Risk. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2016;85:101–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Zlotkin S, Newton S, Aimone AM, Azindow I, Amenga-Etego S, Tchum K, et al. Effect of iron fortification on malaria incidence in infants and young children in Ghana: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;310:938–47.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Vossenaar M, Jaramillo PM, Soto-Mendez MJ, Panday B, Hamelinck V, Bermudez OI, et al. Daily consumption of foods and nutrients from institutional and home sources among young children attending two contrasting day-care centers in Guatemala City. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2012;62:319–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Vossenaar M, Solomons NW. The concept of “critical nutrient density” in complementary feeding: the demands on the “family foods” for the nutrient adequacy of young Guatemalan children with continued breastfeeding. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:859–66.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Osendarp SJ, Broersen B, van Liere MJ, De-Regil LM, Bahirathan L, Klassen E, et al. Complementary feeding diets made of local foods can be optimized, but additional interventions will be needed to meet iron and zinc requirements in 6- to 23-month-old children in low- and middle-income countries. Food Nutr Bull. 2016;37:544–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Uauy R, Solomons NW. Diet, nutrition, and the life-course approach to cancer prevention. J Nutr. 2005;135:2934S–45.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Cartagena DC, Ameringer SW, McGrath J, Jallo N, Masho SW, Myers BJ. Factors contributing to infant overfeeding with Hispanic mothers. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2014;43:139–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Verhage CL, Gillebaart M, van der Veek SMC, Vereijken C. The relation between family meals and health of infants and toddlers: A review. Appetite. 2018;127:97–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Solomons NW, Vossenaar M. Nutrient density in complementary feeding of infants and toddlers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:501–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Lee R. The outlook for population growth. Science. 2011;333:569–73.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Lappé FM. Diet for a small planet. New York: Ballantine Books; 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2005.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marieke Vossenaar.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Solomons, N.W., Vossenaar, M. Towards appropriate feeding to prevent malnutrition in infants and toddlers. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 1274–1281 (2018).

Download citation