Perspective | Published:

Classification of obesity targeted personalized dietary weight loss management based on carbohydrate tolerance

European Journal of Clinical Nutritionvolume 72pages13001304 (2018) | Download Citation

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Elobeid MA, Allison DB. Putative environmental-endocrine disruptors and obesity: a review. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008;15:403–8.

  2. 2.

    Woods SC, Metabolic signals and food intake. Forty years of progress. Appetite. 2013;71:440–4.

  3. 3.

    Verdich C, Toubro S, Buemann B, Lysgard Madsen J, Juul Holst J, Astrup A. The role of postprandial releases of insulin and incretin hormones in meal-induced satiety-effect of obesity and weight reduction. Int J Obes. 2001;25:1206–14.

  4. 4.

    Flint A, Gregersen NT, Gluud C, Møller BK, Raben A, Tetens I, et al. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies. Br J Nutr. 2007;98:17–25.

  5. 5.

    Riederer P, Korczyn AD, Ali SS, Bajenaru O, Choi MS, Chopp M, et al.The diabetic brain and cognition. J Neural Transm. 2017;124:1431–54. ahead of print.

  6. 6.

    Heni M, Wagner R, Kullmann S, Gancheva S, Roden M, Peter A, et al. Hypothalamic and striatal insulin action suppresses endogenous glucose production and may stimulate glucose uptake during hyperinsulinemia in lean but not in overweight men. Diabetes. 2017;66:1797–806.

  7. 7.

    Brüning JC, Gautam D, Burks DJ, Gillette J, Schubert M, Orban PC, et al. Role of brain insulin receptor in control of body weight and reproduction. Science. 2000;289:2122–5.

  8. 8.

    Hwang JJ, Jiang L, Hamza M, Sanchez Rangel E, Dai F, Belfort-DeAguiar R, et al. Blunted rise in brain glucose levels during hyperglycemia in adults with obesity and T2DM. JCI Insight. 2017;2:95913

  9. 9.

    Belza A, Ritz C, Sørensen MQ, Holst JJ, Rehfeld JF, Astrup A. Contribution of gastroenteropancreatic appetite hormones to protein-induced satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:980–9.

  10. 10.

    Astrup A, Hjorth MF. Low-fat or low carb for weight loss? It depends on your glucose metabolism. EBioMedicine. 2017;22:20–21.

  11. 11.

    Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A, Bernstein RK, Fine EJ, Westman EC, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition. 2015;31:1–13.

  12. 12.

    Samkani A, Skytte MJ, Kandel D, Kjaer S, Astrup A, Deacon CF, et al. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet acutely decreases postprandial and diurnal glucose excursions in type 2 diabetes patients. Br J Nutr. 2018;119:910–7.

  13. 13.

    Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM, Andersen HK, Astrup A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017;5:e000354

  14. 14.

    Hjorth MF, Ritz C, Blaak EE, Saris WH, Langin D, Poulsen SK, et al. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose and insulin modify dietary weight loss success: results from 3 randomized clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:499–505.

  15. 15.

    Hjorth MF, Due A, Larsen TM, Astrup A, Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success: results from a stratified RCT. Obesity. 2017;25:2045–8.

  16. 16.

    Petersen M, Taylor MA, Saris WHM, Verdich C, Toubro S, Macdonald I, et al. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content. Int J Obes. 2006;30:552–60. NUGENOB Consortium

  17. 17.

    Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Basora J, Muñoz MA, Sorlí JV, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA, PREDIMED Study Investigators. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1279–90.

  18. 18.

    Estruch R, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Hjorth MF, Astrup A, Zohar Y, et al. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose determines weight loss on high-fat diets: the PREDIMED study. Abstract. ADA; 2017.

  19. 19.

    Larsen TM, Dalskov S, van Baak M, Jebb S, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AFH, et al.Diet, Obesity, and Genes (Diogenes) Project. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2102–13.

  20. 20.

    Poulsen SK, Due A, Jordy AB, Kiens B, Stark KD, Stender S, et al. Health effect of the new nordic diet in adults with increased waist circumference: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:35–45.

  21. 21.

    Udler MS, Kim J, von Grotthuss M, Bonàs-Guarch S, Mercader JM, Cole JB, et al. Clustering of type 2 diabetes genetic loci by multi-trait associations identifies disease mechanisms and subtypes. Preprint at bioRxiv: 2018.

  22. 22.

    Vistisen D, Witte DR, Brunner EJ, Kivimäki M, Tabák A, Jørgensen ME, et al. Risk of cardiovascular disease and death in individuals with prediabetes defined by different criteria: the Whitehall II Study. Diabetes Care. 2018;41:899–906.

  23. 23.

    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2016. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(Suppl 1):S1–S106.

Download references

Author information


  1. Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

    • Arne Astrup
    •  & Mads F. Hjorth


  1. Search for Arne Astrup in:

  2. Search for Mads F. Hjorth in:

Conflict of interest

AA and MFH are co-inventers on a pending provisional patent application on the use of biomarkers for prediction of weight-loss responses, and co-founders/owners of the University of Copenhagen spin-out company Personalized Weight Management Research Consortium ApS ( AA is consultant or a member of advisory boards for Basic Research, USA; Beachbody, USA; BioCare Copenhagen, Denmark; Gelesis, USA; Groupe Éthique et Santé, France; McCain Foods Limited, USA; Nestlé Research Center, Switzerland; and Weight Watchers, USA. AA and MFH are co-authors of a number of diet/cookery books, including personalized nutrition for weight loss, published in several languages.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arne Astrup.

About this article

Publication history