The present study examined the association between childhood overweight, children’s meals and eating out in three types of restaurants (traditional Portuguese food restaurant, fast-food restaurant and snack bar). A representative sample of Portuguese children (5706 boys; 5950 girls aged 6–11 years) was used for this analysis and an ethnographic study with 233 interviews of the owners of snack bars in Coimbra (Portugal). Weight and height were measured (body mass index was consequently calculated). A familial and nutritional questionnaire was filled out by parents. Logistic regressions were used. Findings revealed that eating out at snack bars may be a risk for children’s health because those who eat out at these food establishments have a 21% higher risk of being overweight than those peers who do not eat out at snack bars. In conclusion, findings revealed a statistically significant association between overweight and eating out at snack bars in boys.
Access optionsAccess options
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $53.83 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Macdiarmid JI, Wills WJ, Masson LF, Craig LC, Bromley C, McNeill G. Food and drink purchasing habits out of school at lunchtime: a national survey of secondary school pupils in Scotland. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:98.
Kant AK, Graubard BI. Eating out in America, 1987–2000: trends and nutritional correlates. Prev Med. 2004;38:243–9.
Stamatakis E, Coombs N, Jago R, Gama A, Mourao I, Nogueira H, et al. Associations between indicators of screen time and adiposity indices in Portuguese children. Prev Med. 2013;56:299–303.
Machado-Rodrigues AM, Santana A, Gama A, Mourao I, Nogueira H, Rosado V, et al. Parental perceptions of neighborhood environments, BMI, and active behaviors in girls aged 7–9 years. Am J Hum Biol. 2014;26:670–5.
Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ. 2000;320:1240–3.
Bezerra IN, de Moura Souza A, Pereira RA, Sichieri R. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008–9 Nationwide Dietary Survey. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1276–83.
Ayala GX, Rogers M, Arredondo EM, Campbell NR, Baquero B, Duerksen SC, et al. Away-from-home food intake and risk for obesity: examining the influence of context. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1002–8.
Guthrie JF, Lin BH, Frazao E. Role of food prepared away from home in the American diet, 1977–78 versus 1994-96: changes and consequences. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2002;34:140–50.
Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics. 2004;113(1 Pt 1):112–8.
Maier IB, Ozel Y, Wagnerberger S, Bischoff SC, Bergheim I. Dietary pattern and leisure time activity of overweight and normal weight children in Germany: sex-specific differences. Nutr J. 2013;12:14.
This research was partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007483).
A.M.R. and C.P. participated in the design of the study and in its coordination and helped to draft the manuscript; A.M.R., A.G., I.M., H.N., V.R. and C.P. participated in the nutritional protocols, anthropometric measurements, data management and performed the statistical analysis. All authors revised the manuscript critically (e.g. intellectual content analysis), and approved the final version of the present manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.