Increasing vegetable intake to obtain the health promoting and ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate

Abstract

Increased consumption of dietary nitrate increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and has been shown to elicit cardio-protective effects and improve exercise performance. Nitrate consumption in the habitual diet is mainly dependent on nitrate-rich vegetables, such as green leafy and root vegetables, with total vegetable consumption accounting for approximately 50–85% of our daily nitrate intake. Whereas ‘supplementation’ with dietary nitrate in research studies has mainly been accomplished through the use of (concentrated) nitrate-rich beetroot juice, dietary strategies focusing on increased intake of nitrate-rich vegetables may represent a similarly effective alternative for increasing dietary nitrate intake and, as such, obtaining the associated cardiovascular health and ergogenic benefits.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    Van Duyn MAS, Pivonka E. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2000;100:1511–21.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Hall JN, Moore S, Harper SB, Lynch JW. Global variability in fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36:402–9. e5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Van Rossum C, Fransen H, Verkaik-Kloosterman J, Buurma-Rethans E, Ocké M Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010: Diet of children and adults aged 7 to 69 years. RIVM rapport 350050006. 2011.

  4. 4.

    Murphy MM, Barraj LM, Spungen JH, Herman DR, Randolph RK. Global assessment of select phytonutrient intakes by level of fruit and vegetable consumption. Br J Nutr. 2014;112:1004–18.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Speizer FE, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA. 1999;282:1233–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Speizer FE, et al. The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:1106–14.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Gangolli SD, Van Den Brandt PA, Feron VJ, Janzowsky C, Koeman JH, Speijers GJ, et al. Nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds. Eur J Pharmacol: Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 1994;292:1–38.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Jonvik KL, Nyakayiru J, Van Dijk J-W, Wardenaar FC, Van Loon LJ, Verdijk LB Habitual Dietary Nitrate Intake in Highly Trained Athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016:1-25, https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0239.

  9. 9.

    Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1117–24.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1–10.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Siervo M, Lara J, Ogbonmwan I, Mathers JC. Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nutr. 2013;143:818–26.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Coles LT, Clifton PM. Effect of beetroot juice on lowering blood pressure in free-living, disease-free adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. 2012;11:1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Hmelak Gorenjak A, Cencič A. Nitrate in vegetables and their impact on human health. A review. Acta Aliment. 2013;42:158–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Hobbs DA, Kaffa N, George TW, Methven L, Lovegrove JA. Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:2066–74.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Hughes WE, Ueda K, Treichler DP, Casey DP. Effects of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on aortic blood pressure and aortic augmentation index in young and older adults. Nitric Oxide. 2016;59:21–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Jonvik KL, Nyakayiru J, Pinckaers PJ, Senden JM, van Loon LJ, Verdijk LB. Nitrate-rich vegetables increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lower blood pressure in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2016;146:986–93.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bailey SJ, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A, Winyard PG, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2010;109:135–48.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bailey SJ, Winyard P, Vanhatalo A, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, Wilkerson DP, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:1144–55.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Berry MJ, Justus NW, Hauser JI, Case AH, Helms CC, Basu S, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves exercise performance and decreases blood pressure in COPD patients. Nitric Oxide. 2015;48:22–30.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Cermak NM, Gibala MJ, VanLoon LJ. Nitrate supplementation’s improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists. J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012;22:64.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Coggan AR, Leibowitz JL, Spearie CA, Kadkhodayan A, Thomas DP, Ramamurthy S, et al. Acute dietary nitrate intake improves muscle contractile function in patients with heart failure a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Circ Heart Fail. 2015;8:914–20.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Larsen FJ, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JO, Ekblom B. Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:342–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kenjale AA, Ham KL, Stabler T, Robbins JL, Johnson JL, VanBruggen M, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease. J Appl Physiol. 2011;110:1582–91.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Cooper CE, Giulivi C. Nitric oxide regulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption II: molecular mechanism and tissue physiology. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1993–C2003.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Dejam A, Hunter CJ, Schechter AN, Gladwin MT. Emerging role of nitrite in human biology. Blood Cells, Mol, Dis. 2004;32:423–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Stamler JS, Meissner G. Physiology of nitric oxide in skeletal muscle. Physiol Rev. 2001;81:209–37.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Lundberg JO, Gladwin MT, Ahluwalia A, Benjamin N, Bryan NS, Butler A, et al. Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:865–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Gladwin MT. The nitrate–nitrite–nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics. Rev Drug Discov. 2008;7:156–67.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Vanhatalo A, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, Pavey TG, Wilkerson DP, et al. Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R1121–R31.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Webb AJ, Patel N, Loukogeorgakis S, Okorie M, Aboud Z, Misra S, et al. Acute blood pressure lowering, vasoprotective, and antiplatelet properties of dietary nitrate via bioconversion to nitrite. Hypertension . 2008;51:784–90.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Larsen F, Weitzberg E, Lundberg J, Ekblom B. Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise. Acta Physiol. 2007;191:59–66.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Larsen FJ, Schiffer TA, Borniquel S, Sahlin K, Ekblom B, Lundberg JO, et al. Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans. Cell Metab. 2011;13:149–59.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Kapil V, Milsom AB, Okorie M, Maleki-Toyserkani S, Akram F, Rehman F, et al. Inorganic nitrate supplementation lowers blood pressure in humans role for nitrite-derived NO. Hypertension . 2010;56:274–81.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Larsen FJ, Ekblom B, Sahlin K, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E. Effects of dietary nitrate on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2792–3.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Porcelli S, Pugliese L, Rejc E, Pavei G, Bonato M, Montorsi M, et al. Effects of a short-term high-nitrate diet on exercise performance. Nutrients . 2016;8:534.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Bondonno CP, Liu AH, Croft KD, Ward NC, Yang X, Considine MJ, et al. Short-term effects of nitrate-rich green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;77:353–62.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Bondonno CP, Yang X, Croft KD, Considine MJ, Ward NC, Rich L, et al. Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in healthy men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:95–102.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Lansley KE, Winyard PG, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Wilkerson DP, Blackwell JR, et al. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1125–31.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Wylie LJ, Kelly J, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, Skiba PF, Winyard PG, et al. Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115:325–36.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Gee LC, Ahluwalia A. Dietary nitrate lowers blood pressure: epidemiological, pre-clinical experimental and clinical trial evidence. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2016;18:1–14.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Liu AH, Bondonno CP, Croft KD, Puddey IB, Woodman RJ, Rich L, et al. Effects of a nitrate-rich meal on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy volunteers. Nitric Oxide. 2013;35:123–30.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Breese BC, McNarry MA, Marwood S, Blackwell JR, Bailey SJ, Jones AM. Beetroot juice supplementation speeds O2 uptake kinetics and improves exercise tolerance during severe-intensity exercise initiated from an elevated metabolic rate. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;305:R1441–R50.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Kramer SJ, Baur DA, Spicer MT, Vukovich MD, Ormsbee MJ. The effect of six days of dietary nitrate supplementation on performance in trained CrossFit athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Wardenaar FC, Ceelen IJ, Van Dijk J-W, Hangelbroek RW, Van Roy L, Van der Pouw B, et al. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016:1-25, https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0157. .

  45. 45.

    Mattes R. Soup and satiety. Physiol & Behav. 2005;83:739–47.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Burton-Freeman B. Dietary fiber and energy regulation. J Nutr. 2000;130:272S–5S.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Haber G, Heaton K, Murphy D, Burroughs L. Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre: effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum-insulin. Lancet. 1977;310:679–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Mattes RD. Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. Physiol & Behav. 1996;59:179–87.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Maynard D, Barker A, Minotti P, Peck N. Nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Adv Agron. 1976;28:71–118.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, NVWA analysen 20151002-Nitraat2006-2014, in 2006-2014. 2015, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), the Netherlands: Quality Programme Agarian Products (KAP)database.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors’ responsibilities were as follows CMTvdA, LJCvL, MTEH and LBV designed research. All authors wrote the paper; CMTvdA had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This study was part of the EAT2MOVE project and supported by a grant from the Province of Gelderland.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lex B. Verdijk.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Van der Avoort, C.M.T., Van Loon, L.J.C., Hopman, M.T.E. et al. Increasing vegetable intake to obtain the health promoting and ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 1485–1489 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0140-z

Download citation

Search