Vitamin D3-fortified milk did not affect glycemic control, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes, a triple-blind randomized clinical trial



The effect of vitamin D on glycemic status of diabetes patients is controversial. The objective was to assess the effect of vitamin D3-fortified milk on cardiometabolic markers of patients with type 2 diabetes.


In this randomized triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 102 patients (34 males and 68 females) aged 31–74 years with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either 250 ml unfortified or 250 ml 1000 IU vitamin D3-fortified milk daily for 9 weeks. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipids were determined at baseline and after 9 weeks.


Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations improved in the fortified milk group compared to the control group (+14 ± 20 vs. +4 ± 17 ng/ml; P = 0.001). Both groups showed significant increases in serum calcium (P < 0.01) and decreases in total cholesterol, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Also, there was a significant reduction in body mass index of fortified milk group (P < 0.001). None of these changes were statistically significant between the two groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) significantly decreased in both groups with a more remarkable reduction in the plain milk consumers, making a significant between-group difference (7.5% compared to 3.1%; P = 0.01).


Overall, daily consumption of one cup of milk containing 1000 IU vitamin D3 for 9 weeks substantially improved vitamin D deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes but it did not affect cardiometabolic parameters over that of plain milk.

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The results presented herein were extracted from the thesis written by Ms. Saedeh Salehi. The project was financially supported by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Grant No. 93-7350.

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Author contributions

S.S. and M.A. designed the study. S.S., F.S., M.A.H., and M.R. conducted the research. S.S. and M.A. analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Masoumeh Akhlaghi.

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Salehi, S., Sadeghi, F., Akhlaghi, M. et al. Vitamin D3-fortified milk did not affect glycemic control, lipid profile, and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes, a triple-blind randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 1083–1092 (2018).

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