A novel method of utilizing skinfolds and bioimpedance for determining body fat percentage via a field-based three-compartment model

Subjects

Abstract

Background/objectives

The purpose was to determine if skinfolds (SF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) could provide accurate estimates of body volume (BV) and total body water (TBW), respectively, for use in a 3-compartment (3-C) model to estimate percent body fat (BF%) when compared to laboratory derived measures.

Subjects/methods

A sample of sixty-four men (age = 22.9 ± 5.4 years) and 59 women (age = 21.6 ± 4.3 years) participated in the study. Laboratory 3-C (3CLAB) model BF% was determined with underwater weighing for body volume (BV) and bioimpedance spectroscopy for total body water (TBW). The 3-C field (3CFIELD) estimates of BF% included BV from the 7-site SF technique and TBW from hand-to-foot BIA.

Results

A significant difference in BF% (p < 0.01) was found between the 3CLAB and 3CFIELD in the entire sample and within the men, but the effect sizes (ES) were small (0.09 and 0.17, respectively). The difference between means was not significant in the women (ES = 0.05, p = 0.332). Compared to the 3CLAB, the total error (TE) ranged 2.2–2.4% for 3CFIELD, 5.7–5.8% for SF, and 4.0–4.6% for BIA.

Conclusions

The findings suggest that BV and TBW derived from SF and BIA, respectively, can be used in a 3CFIELD model to increase the accuracy of BF% estimates over SF and BIA alone.

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Pi-Sunyer FX, Xavier DM, Becker C, Bouchard RA, Carleton GA, Colditz WH, et al. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:889–917.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    World Health Organization. Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation on obesity. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1998;2:894.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Moon JR. Body composition in athletes and sports nutrition: an examination of the bioimpedance analysis technique. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:S54–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Segal KR. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements as an evaluation for participating in sports. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:469S–471S.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Piucco T, Santos SG. Association between body fat, vertical jump performance and impact in the inferior limbs in volleyball athletes. Fit Perform. 2009;8:9–15.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Cahill S, Jones M, Measurement of body composition and athletic performance during NCAA division I women’s volleyball and softball seasons.J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chu SM, Gustafson KE, Leiszler M, Female athlete triad. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2013;7:387–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Siri WE, Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. Tech Meas body Compos.1961;61:223–44.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Brozek J, Grande F, Anderson JT, Keys A. Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1963;110:113–40.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Siri WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. 1961. Nutr. 1993;9:480–91.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Withers RT, Laforgia J, Heymsfield SB. Critical appraisal of the estimation of body composition via two-, three-, and four-compartment models. Am J Hum Biol. 1999;11:175–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Wang J, Pierson RN. Disparate hydration of adipose and lean tissue require a new model for body water distribution in man. J Nutr. 1976;106:1687–93.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Moon JR, Tobkin SE, Smith AE, Roberts MD, Ryan ED, Dalbo VJ, et al. Percent body fat estimations in college men using field and laboratory methods: a three-compartment model approach. Dyn Med. 2008;7:7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Moon JR, Hull HR, Tobkin SE, Teramoto M, Karabulut M, Roberts MD, et al. Percent body fat estimations in college women using field and laboratory methods: a three-compartment model approach. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007;4:16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Forslund AH, Johansson AG, Sjödin A, Bryding G, Ljunghall S, Hambraeus L. Evaluation of modified multicompartment models to calculate body composition in healthy males. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:856–62.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kavouras SA. Assessing hydration status. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2002;5:519–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Jackson AS, Pollock ML. Practical assessment of body-composition. Phys Sportsmed. 1985;13:76–90.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Chumlea WC, Guo SS, Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Johnson CL, Heymsfield SB, et al. Body composition estimates from NHANES III bioelectrical impedance data. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:1596–609.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Moon JR, Tobkin SE, Roberts MD, Dalbo VJ, Kerksick CM, Bemben MG, et al. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison. Nutr Metab. 2008;5:7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Kerr A, Slater G, Byrne N, Chaseling J. Validation of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy to measure total body water in resistance-trained males. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015;25: 494–503.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Matias CN, Santos DA, Gonçalves EM, Fields DA, Sardinha LB, Silva AM. Is bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy accurate in estimating total body water and its compartments in elite athletes? Ann Hum Biol. 2013;40:152–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gonçalves EM, Matias CN, Santos DA, Sardinha LB, Silva AM. Assessment of total body water and its compartments in elite judo athletes: comparison of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy with dilution techniques. J Sports Sci. 2015;33: 634–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Moon JR, Eckerson JM, Tobkin SE, Smith AE, Lockwood CM, Walter AA, et al. Estimating body fat in NCAA division I female athletes: a five-compartment model validation of laboratory methods. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105:119–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Moon JR, Tobkin SE, Smith AE, Lockwood CM, Walter AA, Cramer JT, et al. Anthropometric estimations of percent body fat in NCAA division I female athletes: a 4-compartment model validation. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:1068–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Cohen J. Statistical power anlaysis for the behavior science. 2nd ed. Hillsdale NJ: Routledge; 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet. 1986;1:307–10.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Wang ZM, Deurenberg P, Guo SS, Pietrobelli A, Wang J, Pierson RN, et al. Six-compartment body composition model: inter-method comparisons of total body fat measurement. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:329–37.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Wang ZM, Deurenberg P, Wang W, Pietrobelli A, Baumgartner RN, Heymsfield SB. Hydration of fat-free body mass: review and critique of a classic body-composition constant. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:833–41.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Stout JR, Housh TJ, Eckerson JM, Johnson GO, Betts NM. Validity of methods for estimating percent body fat in young women. J Strength Cond Res. 1996;10:25–9.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Stout JR, Eckerson JM, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Betts NM. Validity of percent body fat estimations in males. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994;26:632–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Jackson AS, Pollock ML. Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. Br J Nutr. 1978;40:497–504.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Jackson AS, Pollock ML, Ward A. Generalized equations for predicting body density of women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12:175–81.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Esco MR, Snarr RL, Leatherwood MD, Chamberlain NA, Redding ML, Flatt AA, et al. Comparison of total and segmental body composition using DXA and multifrequency bioimpedance in collegiate female athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29:918–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Kremer MM, Latin RW, Berg KE, Stanek K. Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body fat in Air Force members. Mil Med. 1998;163:781–5.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Esco MR, Olson MS, Williford HN, Lizana SN, Russell AR. The accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis in predicting body composition in college-age female athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:1040–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Nickerson BS, Snarr RL, Russell AR, Bishop PA, Esco MR. Comparison of BIA and DXA for estimating body composition in collegiate female athletes. J Sport Hum Per. 2014;2:29–39.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Haas V, Schütz T, Engeli S, Schröder C, Westerterp K, Boschmann M. Comparing single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis against deuterium dilution to assess total body water. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:994–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Sun SS, Chumlea WC, Heymsfield SB, Lukaski HC, Schoeller D, Friedl K, et al. Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis prediction equations for body composition with the use of a multicomponent model for use in epidemiologic surveys. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:331–40.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Withers RT, LaForgia J, Pillans RK, Shipp NJ, Chatterton BE, Schultz CG, et al. Comparisons of two-, three-, and four-compartment models of body composition analysis in men and women. J Appl Physiol. 1998;85:238–45.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael R. Esco.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Esco, M., Nickerson, B.S., Fedewa, M. et al. A novel method of utilizing skinfolds and bioimpedance for determining body fat percentage via a field-based three-compartment model. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 1431–1438 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-017-0060-3

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links