Table 3 Overview of recommendations or guidelines for dietary fibre intake and their justification

From: Dietary carbohydrates: a review of international recommendations and the methods used to derive them

Country Dietary fibre intake recommendation or guideline Justification (s) Reference
Australia/New Zealand • 30 g/d for men, 25 g/d for women•  Enjoy grain (cereal) foods, mostly wholegrain and/or high cereal fibre varieties Requirements for adequate gastrointestinal function and adequate laxation Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2006 [22]
   Probable association with reduced risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and weight-gain. Suggestive association with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2013 [4]
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Adequate intake for normal laxation:•  Adults: 25 g/day•   Children 1–18 yrs: 10–21  g/day Evidence base for role of fibre in normal bowel function EFSA 2010 [12]
   Panel also noted evidence for reduced risk of disease at intakes >25 g/day in adults  
Germany, Austria, Switzerland Target value: ≥30 g/day Total dietary fibre, and/ or fibre from whole grain cereals, associated with probable reduction in risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, CHD and colorectal cancer D-A-CH Reference values 2011 [11]
    German Nutrition Society (DGE) 2012 [7]
Ireland No specific target for dietary fibre intake High fibre foods help to protect against bowel diseases, such as diverticular disease, and colon cancer. Consuming plenty of wholemeal and wholegrain foods helps to keep bowel movements regular Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) 2011 [25]
Netherlands NR is 3.4 g/MJ (14 g/1000 kcal) NR based on gut function and on the risk of coronary heart disease Health Council of the Netherlands. Dutch dietary guidelines 2015 [5]
  FBG on foods rich or low in fibres is given as follows: FBG: Gezondheidsraad Voedingvezel, 2015 [20]
  Eat a more vegetable and less animal diet, in accordance with the following guidelines: Total fibre: strong association for risk reduction of type 2 diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, breast cancer and colon cancer Health Council of the Netherlands. Background Document Methodology for the evaluation of the evidence for the Dutch dietary guidelines 2015 [18]
  Higher consumption recommended Cereal fibre: reduced risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes type 2, and (limited evidence) reduced risk of stroke Health Council of the Netherlands. Guideline for dietary fibre intake. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2006 [21]
  • Eat at least 200 g of vegetables daily and at least 200 g of fruit.•  Eat at least 90 g daily bread, wholegrain bread or other whole grain products.•  Eat legumes weekly. Vegetable fibre: reduced risk of coronary heart disease (limited evidence)  
   Fruit fibre: reduced risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes type 2 (limited evidence)  
  Replacement recommended   
  • Replace refined grain products with whole grain products   
Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden) Recommended intake:•  Adult women: 25 g/day•  Adult men: 30 g/day•  Or >3 g/MJ•  Children 1–17 yrs: 2–3 g/MJ Convincing evidence of a protective effect of fibre against colorectal cancer, probable evidence of a protective effect against CVD and limited-suggestive evidence of effects against breast cancer and type 2 diabetes. Fibre-rich foods also help to maintain body weight Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)
    2012 [8]
Spain ≥25 g/day Based on fibre intake of Spanish population (75th percentile) plus evidence of benefit as determined by the EURODIET project Nutritional objectives for the Spanish population 2001 [23]
UK Reference values for average population intake:•  Adults: 30 g/day•  Children 2–5 yrs: 15 g/day•  Children 5–11 yrs: 20 g/day•  Children 11–16 yrs: 25 g/day•  Adolescents 16–18 yrs: 30 g/day Level for which evidence of dose-related protective effect against CVD, CHD, Stroke, type 2 diabetes and CRC is most consistent Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition SACN (UK) 2015 [9]
USA/Canada Nutritional goal: 14 g/1000 kcal Moderate evidence that fibre protects against CVD, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and essential for digestive health. Level set to minimize risk of CVD IoM Dietary Reference Intakes, 2005 [17]
    US 2010 [10]
WHO • From foods•  Wholegrain cereals, fruits and vegetables are preferred sources•  Recommended intake from these sources is likely to provide >25  g/day Reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease WHO/FAO Expert Consultation 2003 [14]