Comparison of solithromycin with erythromycin in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from China: antibacterial activity, clonality, resistance mechanism, and inhibition of biofilm formation

Abstract

Solithromycin (SOL), a fourth-generation macrolide and ketolide, has been reported to have robust antibacterial activity against a wide spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria. However, the impact of SOL on planktonic growth and biofilm formation of clinical enterococcus isolates remains unclear. In this study, 276 Enterococcus faecalis isolates and 122 Enterococcus faecium were retrospectively collected from a tertiary hospital from China. SOL against clinical isolates of enterococci from China were evaluated the antimicrobial activity in comparison with erythromycin, and explore its relationship with the clonality, virulence genes and resistance mechanism of these isolates. Our data showed that the MICs of SOL against clinical E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates from China were ≤4 and ≤8 mg l−1, respectively. ST16 and ST179 were regarded as the risk factor to SOL resistance in E. faecalis. SOL could inhibit but not eradicate the biofilm formation of E. faecalis. The bactericidal effects of SOL against E. faecalis and E. faecium were demonstrated to be similar to linezolid and vancomycin using time-kill assays. In conclusion, SOL showed significantly enhanced antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium from China in comparison to erythromycin. Furthermore, SOL could inhibit the biofilm formation of E. faecalis and have the similar bactericidal ability as linezolid and vancomycin against both E. faecalis and E. faecium.

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Funding

This work was supported by grants from Science, Technology and Innovation Commission of Shenzhen Municipality of key funds (JCYJ20180508162403996) and basic research funds (JCYJ20180302144345028; JCYJ20180302144431923, JCYJ20180302144721183, JCYJ20180302144340004); Shenzhen Key Medical Discipline Construction Funds (No. SZXK06162); San Ming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen; the Shenzhen Nanshan District Scientific Research Program of the People’s Republic of China (Nos. 2019032, 2019001, 2019004, 2019005, 2019027, and 2018064) and provincial medical funds of Guangdong (Nos. B2017019, 2018116164215307, and A2018163).

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ZY and ZW participated in the design of the study and revised the paper. GX and QD extracted DNA, YW, YX, ZW, and JZ performed PCR amplification and other experiments.

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Correspondence to Zewen Wen or Zhijian Yu.

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This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shenzhen Nanshan people’s Hospital, the 6th Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

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Wang, Y., Xiong, Y., Wang, Z. et al. Comparison of solithromycin with erythromycin in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from China: antibacterial activity, clonality, resistance mechanism, and inhibition of biofilm formation. J Antibiot (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41429-020-00374-2

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