This focus review is designed to summarize the development of macromolecular architectures formed via biscalixarene–fullerene host–guest interactions. Biscalixarene–fullerene host–guest complexation leads to various macromolecular architectures, including block polymers, star-shaped polymers, cross-linked polymers, and one-handed helical polymers, and host–guest complexation is not prevented by the long polymer chains owing to the high binding affinity between biscalixarene and fullerene. These macromolecular architectures exhibited state-switching natures in response to environmental stimuli. Notably, one of them displayed behavior concordant with those of corresponding covalently linked polymers, including solution viscosity and thermal properties, even though the structures were maintained by relatively weak noncovalent interactions. These demonstrations indicate that biscalixarene–fullerene host–guest interactions can be used to create supramolecularly connected macromolecular architectures that can convert between assembled and disassembled states because of the dynamic nature of noncovalent interactions.
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The author thanks Prof. Takeharu Haino (Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University) for his encouragement and constructive discussions. This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists, JSPS KAKENHI (22K14727). Finally, the author expresses heartiest gratitude to Hitomi Hirao for her kind assistance in the preparation of the manuscript.
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The author declares no competing interests.
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Hirao, T. Macromolecular architectures constructed by biscalixarene–fullerene host–guest interactions. Polym J 55, 95–104 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41428-022-00732-x