Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, cause oxidative stress that strongly affects aging and various diseases. Although various antioxidants have been developed to eliminate ROS, they cause serious problems by destroying important redox reactions in normal cells. We designed redox polymers with antioxidants covalently bonded to them. These polymers, with a self-assembling property, form nanoparticles in aqueous media (redox nanoparticles; RNPs), suppress uptake into normal cells, accumulate at inflammation sites, and effectively prevent ROS-related diseases. As such, RNPs have been found to be effective in preventing diseases involving ROS, such as myocardial and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries, ulcerative colitis, and cancer. Redox polymers have several other applications. We designed redox injectable gels (RIGs), which transform from flowable solution at ambient temperature to gel at body temperature under the physiological conditions. RIGs can be applied for suppression of local inflammation, such as periodontitis. RIGs can also be used in anti-tissue adhesion sprays applied after physical surgery. Redox polymers can also be used as a surface coating of biodevices to make them blood compatible. This review summarizes the synthesis and application of these redox polymers.
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This article is a contribution of the author, who was awarded the Award of the Society of Polymer Science, Japan (2017). The author would like to express his sincere gratitude to the Society of Polymer Science and to all the associated people. The data described here are the findings of studies conducted in collaboration with his students and colleagues in his laboratory at the University of Tsukuba, as well as with many other collaborators, including medical doctors. The author also thanks them for their continuous support. Most of the work described here was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research S (25220203), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Nagasaki, Y. Design and application of redox polymers for nanomedicine. Polym J 50, 821–836 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41428-018-0054-6
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