Fig. 3: Functional characterization of surfaced-engineered nanobubbles. | NPG Asia Materials

Fig. 3: Functional characterization of surfaced-engineered nanobubbles.

From: Surface-engineered nanobubbles with pH-/light-responsive drug release and charge-switchable behaviors for active NIR/MR/US imaging-guided tumor therapy

Fig. 3

a Cumulative release of 5-FU at pH 7.4, 6.5, and 5.0 within 48 h. Laser irradiation induced further cumulative release of 5-FU at 12 h (pH 5.0); the red arrow indicates the change. b Temperature changes of the nanobubbles (6 or 12 μg/mL IR-780) in response to laser irradiation (808 nm, 1.0 W/cm2) within 360 s; water was used as a control. c Infrared thermal images of nanobubbles under laser irradiation (808 nm, 1.0 W/cm2) at an IR-780 concentration of 12 μg/mL; water was used as a control. d T1 relaxation rate (1/T1) of the GdDTPA-BSA complex and nanobubbles. e T1-weighted MR images of nanobubbles with different Gd3+ concentrations. Water (0 mM) was used as a reference. f In vitro ultrasound imaging of nanobubbles at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/mL; water was used as a control

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