Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Research Highlight
  • Published:

Coming of age: the formation and function of age-associated B cells

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1


  1. Hao Y, O’Neill P, Naradikian MS, Scholz JL, Cancro MP. A B-cell subset uniquely responsive to innate stimuli accumulates in aged mice. Blood. 2011;118:1294–304.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Cancro MP. Age-associated B cells. Annu Rev Immunol. 2020;38:315–40.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Wu C, Fu Q, Guo Q, Chen S, Goswami S, Sun S, et al. Lupus-associated atypical memory B cells are mTORC1-hyperactivated and functionally dysregulated. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019;78:1090–100.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Song W, Antao OQ, Condiff E, Sanchez GM, Chernova I, Zembrzuski K, et al. Development of Tbet- and CD11c-expressing B cells in a viral infection requires T follicular helper cells outside of germinal centers. Immunity. 2022;55:290–307.e5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Wang S, Wang J, Kumar V, Karnell JL, Naiman B, Gross PS, et al. IL-21 drives expansion and plasma cell differentiation of autoreactive CD11c hi T-bet + B cells in SLE. Nat Commun. 2018;9:1758.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Du SW, Arkatkar T, Jacobs HM, Rawlings DJ, Jackson SW. Generation of functional murine CD11c+ age-associated B cells in the absence of B cell T-bet expression. Eur J Immunol. 2019;49:170–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Manni M, Gupta S, Ricker E, Chinenov Y, Park SH, Shi M, et al. Regulation of age-associated B cells by IRF5 in systemic autoimmunity. Nat Immunol. 2018;19:407.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Dai D, Gu S, Han X, Ding H, Jiang Y, Zhang X, et al. The transcription factor ZEB2 drives the formation of age-associated B cells. Science. 2024;383:413–21.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Xiao F, Rui K, Shi X, Wu H, Cai X, Lui KO, et al. Epigenetic regulation of B cells and its role in autoimmune pathogenesis. Cell Mol Immunol. 2022;19:1215–34.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Ma K, Li J, Wang X, Lin X, Du W, Yang X, et al. TLR4+CXCR4+ plasma cells drive nephritis development in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018;77:1498–506.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82071817, 82171793, 82371803), the Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (YCYJ20210324114602008), the Jiangsu Provincial Key Research and Development Program (BE2023758), the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (17113319, 17103821), the RGC Theme-based Research Scheme (TRS) (T12-703/19-R) and the Centre for Oncology and Immunology under the Health@InnoHK Initiative funded by the Innovation and Technology Commission, Hong Kong, China. The figure was drawn with BioRender with the permission of the publication license.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Fan Xiao or Liwei Lu.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rui, K., Che, N., Ma, K. et al. Coming of age: the formation and function of age-associated B cells. Cell Mol Immunol 21, 311–312 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links